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Standard 2 – Career and Technical Education
he program   includes preparation   to develop and apply specialized knowledge and understanding of the philosophy, history, issues and trends, and current research associated with career and technical education, and their specific influence and effect on agriculture education programs.

Required Elements for Standard 2 – Career and Technical Education:

2(a) The program provides candidates with knowledge of the philosophical underpinnings of career and technical education with particular attention to the role occupational experience plays in this type of education, and the ability to apply this knowledge in the development and implementation of agriculture education programs.

2(b) The program provides candidates with the historical background for the emergence of career and technical education as a component of a comprehensive education.

2(c) The program exposes candidates to current and emerging trends that affect career and technical education, including the increased emphasis on core educational skills and standardized learning and assessment of those skills, and the effects of these trends on agriculture education programs.

2(d) The program provides candidates with current and emerging research on the value of situated and contextual learning in terms of acquiring knowledge, understanding and skills for academic and career success, and methods for creating educational experiences reflecting this research.

Career and Technical Education

Candidates are first exposed to the philosophical concepts of Career and Technical Education in AGED 50, Orientation to Agricultural Education. This is an early field experience course with candidates spending time observing in a high school Agricultural Education Department. In this course candidates are required to interview high school agriculture teachers and are provided with examples of philosophy statements. They are also given an assignment to write their own personal philosophy statement.

AGED 135, Introduction to Agricultural Education, builds on these concepts with particular emphasis on the importance of having an agricultural education philosophy. This course covers the requirements for obtaining the Preliminary Single Subject Credential and the Agriculture Specialist Credential including the occupational experience requirement. An overview of early philosophers including Socrates and Plato is presented to assist candidates in understanding the meaning of philosophy and its importance in education. Candidates enrolled in this course are also given an assignment to develop their personal philosophy statement including their philosophy for teaching with an emphasis on agricultural education.

AGED 187, Organization, Administration, and Supervision of Agricultural Education, covers principles of learning, principles of Agricultural Education, the Program Concept for Agricultural Education, Advisory Committees, managing Supervised Agriculture Experience Programs, serving as the FFA Advisor, and developing classroom and laboratory management techniques and systems. The philosophy and principles of career and technical education including the work of John Dewey, Charles Prosser, and Rufus Stimson are covered to provide the basis for candidates to continue to develop and refine a personal philosophy for agricultural education.

Candidates are concurrently enrolled in AGRI 280, Seminar in Agricultural Education, and final student teaching. An assignment for the seminar course requires each student to prepare a portfolio that includes their philosophy statement.

AGED 187 also covers the history of the development of Career and Technical Education and Agricultural Education including state and Federal legislation from the Smith Hughes Act to the Perkins Act of 2006 at the Federal level and California legislation from Senate Bill 187 to Assembly Bill 1645. Candidates are first exposed to portions of the history in AGED 50 and the initial exposure is reinforced in AGED 135. In AGRI 280 candidates deal with current state and Federal legislation issues.

Current and emerging trends that affect career and technical education are introduced in AGED 50, reinforced in AGED 135 and covered in more detail in AGED 187 and CI 161. The California State Plan for Career and Technical Education is discussed along with current Perkins Federal Legislation impacting Career and Technical Education. Students participate in a brainstorming exercise to develop a list of trends prior to the instructor providing a more comprehensive list and discussion of trends and issues impacting Agricultural Education. Students are also exposed to current trends and issues during initial and final student teaching and these trends and issues are discussed in the AGRI 280 Seminar Class. Topics covered include integration of academic and career and technical education, technology trends, curriculum trends and issues including the increased emphasis on science, program funding, authentic assessment, globalization, and teacher supply and demand. In this course students analyze trends and issues and review research articles on current methods for creating positive educational experiences for secondary school students.

EHD 155A, Student Teaching in Secondary School, is the initial student teaching experience with candidates spending part time at a local area high school while they are also enrolled in CI 159, Curriculum and Instruction in Secondary Schools, CI 161 Methods and Materials in Secondary Teaching, and SPED 121, Teaching Students with Special Needs in the Secondary General Education Setting. These courses are designed to equip candidates with planning and delivering instruction to meet the needs of diverse student populations. Candidates are taught to design and deliver instruction based on California State Standards that meet the needs of students with varied backgrounds, learning styles, and ability levels. During initial student teaching students begin to put into practice the concepts learned related to trends, issues, and current and emerging research. They also participate in some school, CATA section and region meetings.

EHD 155B, Student Teaching in Secondary School, is the full-time student teaching experience with candidates spending full time at a high school for the entire semester. In this course candidates are expected to gradually work up to teaching a full class load for several weeks. They are also expected to perform the duties of an FFA advisor, supervise student agricultural experience programs, attend department and advisory committee meetings and perform the normal duties of a regular faculty member at the cooperating high school. They are also expected to attend in-service and other professional development meetings sponsored by the local district, the California Department of Education, and the California Agricultural Teachers’ Association. During this phase of the program, candidates practice and apply the concepts and competencies learned in their prior coursework.

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