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Standard 25

Individual Counseling

Candidates demonstrate knowledge of the theories of counseling, the stages of the counseling relationship, and the elements of effective counseling, particularly as they pertain to the three domains of school counseling. Candidates also know and demonstrate skills in helping pupils cope with personal and interpersonal problems as well as skills in crisis intervention in response to personal, school, and community crises. Candidates are able to design and implement programs of wellness promotion, prevention, treatment and intervention services. In addition, candidates understand and possess skill for evaluating counseling outcomes, including the impact of individual and small group counseling on student learning and achievement. Candidates know community-based mental health referral resources and effective referral practices.

Factors to Consider

Knowledge of and skills in applying theories of counseling appropriate to schools:

Opportunities are provided for candidates to demonstrate their possession of knowledge and skills in applying theories of counseling appropriate to schools. They are first put into counseling experience in the role of client (required by Coun 174), taking turns as a counselor and a client in peer counseling (required by Coun 200), and providing counseling for selected clients on campus (required by Coun 208). Candidates must at least demonstrate the quality of being a good counselor (Grade B for Coun 208), otherwise, they are required to repeat Coun 208.

Grade B or above for Coun 208 indicates that candidates have demonstrated at least a good quality of the following:

mastery of unconditional regard for client(s)

  • mastery of empathy
  • mastery of facilitative genuineness
  • mastery of appropriate self-disclosure
  • mastery of immediacy
  • mastery of therapeutic confrontation
  • respectful of client (needs, values, strengths)
  • consistent; steady improvement
  • overall quality of the therapeutic alliance
  • assessment and diagnosis skills
  • seeks self-improvement and learning opportunities
  • adheres to ethical standards; understands commitments to clients

Upon successful completion of Coun 208, candidates are given permission to apply counseling for pupils in K-12 settings (Coun 249). Their counseling skills are further evaluated by their on-site supervisors.

Knowledge and skills in assisting individual pupils with emotional conflicts and problems and evaluating counseling outcomes:

Candidates’ successful completion of Coun 208 indicates that they possess the skills in helping clients with emotional conflicts and problems. They are also required to write case write-up, progress notes, and case summaries to demonstrate their understanding of clients’ problems, their ability to develop treatment plans, and to evaluate counseling outcomes.

Candidates taking Coun 249 are required to complete a case study in which they demonstrate how they apply counseling theories to assess pupils’ problems, conceptualize intervention plans, and evaluate counseling outcomes.

3.   Knowledge of the assessment of student mental and emotional problems

Coun 203: Objective 3: Describe methods and theories related to the emotional, intellectual, and physical characteristics of typical and atypical students.

Required activities:

Candidates are required to write a psychological report on a student from the class. The report will include interviews, tests in and out of class, and other pertinent assessment data.

Coun 208: When candidates provide supervised direct individual counseling on campus, they have the experience of assessing mental and emotional problems of their clients.

4.  Knowledge of and skill in making appropriate and effective referrals to community mental health agencies and professionals

Coun 208: Handbook: Referral resources are given to candidates in the Handbook for Coun 208. During the counseling process and before terminating the counseling relationships, candidates will consult with the instructor and refer to the referral list for appropriate community services for clients.

Coun 240:

Required activities:

Candidates are each required to work closely with parent(s) who have a pupil showing signs of problems. They will create a Family Resource Notebook for the family they work with. Candidates are required to demonstrate how the referral resources can be used to address the identified problems and needs of the family.

Coun 249: Checklist for activities in fieldwork includes: Make referrals for students to various agencies.

5.  Knowledge of and skill in applying research based counseling theory to particular problems and populations

Candidates demonstrate their knowledge of and skills in applying research based counseling theory to particular problems and populations through case analysis, formulation of accurate treatment plans and participation in class discussion of related topics.

Coun 233:


Child Interview and Role Play:

Students will be required to do a 20-minute interview with a child using techniques you learn from play therapy (e.g. puppet interviewing, art therapy, Theraplay®, story-telling, etc.). The interview will be conducted at Fresno Family Counseling Center with the faculty and other class members viewing your session through digital feedback monitors at that site.

Specific topics covered in Coun 233 include:

  • Child and Adolescent Depression
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Oppositional Behavior/Conduct Disorder/Gangs
  • Common Childhood Disorders
  • Reactive Attachment Disorder
  • Eating/Elimination Disorders

Coun 241: Specific topics covered in this course include:

  • working with Students in Crisis
  • working with At-risk Students
  • working with Students who are the Victims of Violence

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