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Standard 28

Organizational Systems and Program Development

Candidates understand the organization, structure, and cultural context of schools as educational systems and are able to plan, develop, implement and evaluate systematic and comprehensive counseling and guidance programs that are part of an overall school plan. Such programs include student outcomes that reflect the impact of counseling and guidance programs on students learning and academic achievement.

Factors to Consider

  1. A comprehensive school counseling and guidance program

    Coun 249: Students are guided through the whole process of developing, implementing and evaluating a comprehensive school counseling and guidance program through reading the required text and practicing the concepts in approved school setting. These activities strengthen the following skills:

  2. Understand and apply basic principles of organizational theory and change theory;
  3. Understand the organization of the school, dynamics of change and the roles of individuals within the school setting;
  4. Identify a wide range of philosophical, historical, political, ethical, cultural and economic forces that impact the school organization and ecology;
  5. Understand the ways to build consensus in program development;
  6. Experience the process of data collection, assessing validity and reliability, and compiling an evaluation report based on outcome measures;
  7. Know how to conduct needs assessment and program evaluation.

RequirementsCoun 249 requires candidates to engage in the following activities to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive guidance program to help students at risk of school failures:

For each of the field work site, candidates compile a Site Binder to collect the following information from their school sites and present in class:

  • organization chart, personnel at the counseling center,
  • Academic Performance Index (API),
  • demographics of the student population (including ethnicity, gender, and socio-economic status),
  • counseling programs and activities currently offered,
  • job descriptions of school counselors,
  • assessment instruments to evaluate the counseling program,
  • after school programs and community resources available on campus or in the neighborhood.

After reading Chapter 3 of the textbook, Comprehensive School Counseling Programs, candidates consult with their field supervisor and relevant school personnel to

  • Identify if a comprehensive school counseling plan is in place.
  • If yes, describe and assess their plan and if no, describe how you will develop a comprehensive school plan at your school site.

After reading Chapter 5 of the textbook, Developing a Program, candidates describe how they will develop one prevention program at their school site by following the guidelines of the chapter on planning, organizing, implementing, and evaluating.

Other courses also provide opportunities for students to learn organizational theories, program development and evaluation, and conducting needs assessment:

COUN 241:

Objective 1: Familiar with major philosophical and theoretical approaches to coordinating and supervision of counseling programs at elementary, middle and high school levels.

Objective 4: The student will review school budgeting procedures and supervisory methods used for counseling programs along with methods of evaluating school counseling programs through approved research programs.

Objective 5: Familiar with ways of coordinating and developing counseling services in a school setting including how school professionals work together, increasing counseling services to pupils, working with paraprofessionals and volunteers in program planning.

Objective 6: Able to develop and implement plans directed at affecting school climate by bringing about change in an organization or with an individual(s) within an organization.

Objective 7: Aware of leadership skills in organizational and administrative aspects of school counseling services.

Coun 241 includes the area of Administrative Role in School Counseling under the section on knowledge base. Knowledge and skills pertaining to the administrative role of school counselors in program development are covered through class discussion and activities throughout the course.

Candidates are required to write research papers to report on successful programs, and critically analyze and evaluate programs or review literature on leadership styles, skills, and roles, and adapt them to the professional school counselor.

Candidates are also required to make a group presentation on a topic relevant to leadership, program evaluation, student achievement, historical issues, current trends, and anticipated future scenarios related to school counseling.

Topics relating to organizational systems and program development covered in the course schedule include: National School Counseling Standards, A School Counseling Program, Counselor as Leader, and the Counseling Program and Student Achievement.

COUN 242: Objective 1: Develop methods of working with school staff and parents which include planned prevention programs to help alleviate school failure and promote ways of increasing pupil successes K-12 school settings.

Coun 242 reviews different consultation models as they apply to enhancing success among school students. Course topics include both individual and organizational consultation processes. Candidates demonstrate their understanding of the knowledge and skills in working with school staff and parents through planning prevention programs in the following ways:

In the final examination, candidates respond to two vignettes. In one vignette, they are required to design and apply an appropriate parent education program for a specific population group. In the second vignette, they are required to develop a specific method for working with school staff and parents around a program to alleviate school failure and increase pupil success.

Candidates are also assigned to make group presentations. Each group must develop and present a consultation model for working with teachers, parents or administrators. The topics for presentation include:

  • A planned prevention/intervention program, i.e. drug abuse prevention, school drop out prevention, intervention with at-risk students, positive alternatives to gangbanging, increasing school success for elementary, middle, or secondary school students.
  • Design and implement a peer counseling/helping program.

Understanding the interrelationships among prevention and intervention strategies

In Coun 242: different models and concepts relating to consultation are examined.

Models of consultation are reviewed along the following dimensions:

  • Purposes of intervention (primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention)
  • The method of intervention (direct and indirect services) and
  • The target of intervention (individuals, groups, organizations, and communities).

Students are asked to apply the models of consultation to approach a vignette for appropriate levels of intervention.

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