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Standard 4


The program provides candidates with the knowledge of current theories and methods of using assessment data to support data-based decision making for the purpose of understanding, evaluating and promoting positive pupil performance, program outcomes, and school climate. Candidates develop an understanding of the influence of multiple factors on pupil achievement. The program requires candidates to analyze assessment information in a manner that produces valid inferences when evaluating the needs of individual pupils and assessing the effectiveness of educational programs.


The primary course that addresses Standard 4 is Coun 203, Assessment in Counseling.  Topics covered in Coun 203 that relate to the factors to consider in Standard 4 are listed below:

 Coun 203addresses the following topics in class : 

  1. Types of educational and psychological appraisal 
  2. Types of assessment used in these major areas: school, rehabilitation counseling and career development, MFCC (marriage and family counseling) settings, and clinical settings 
  3. Theoretical bases for assessment, including learning styles and developmental stages of children 
  4. Validity: Content, construct, and concurrent and predictive criterion types 
  5. Reliability: Four major methods 
  6. Major appraisal methods including: environmental, individual tests and inventory methods, behavioral observations, and computer assisted methods 
  7. Measures of central tendency and standard scores 
  8. Ethical and legal considerations for use of assessment data 
  9. Cultural diversity and critical pedagogy 
  10. Communicating test results to individual clients, parents, teachers, administrators, and other interested parties 
Assignment: Asssessment A

Candidates demonstrate their understanding of the above topics through participation in class discussion, successfully passing examinations, and applying these concepts when they write case studies and psychological reports.

Other courses that address individual factors to consider

Assessment is an integral part of the process of providing appropriate services to pupils and their families.  Courses that address specific domains of school counseling incorporate the concepts and skills of assessment in both content areas and required activities.

1. Knowledge of current theories and methods of assessing pupil performance

Coun 208: The abilities of candidates to assess a client, the counseling process, and themselves as counselors are developed in this course through a series of activities: providing individual counseling, observing and critiquing of peers in counseling, critiquing of tapes, writing reflection journals, and writing reports and progress notes on counseling sessions.

Assignment: PracticumR

Coun 220: Objective 10: Identify and become knowledgeable of the various assessment instruments and techniques used in career counseling field.

Assignment: CareerA

Coun 240: Objective 7: Demonstrate the ability to work knowledgeably, effectively, and sensitively with families whose culture and/or language differs from his or her own

Assigment: ExceptionalA

Coun 249: Objective 4:  Apply knowledge of psychological and educational assessment in an approved school setting.

Assignment: FieldworkA

CI 285: Objective 4: Student will identify a context for brief intervention, develop an assessment plan, collect data, interpret results, and describe implications for planning and change.

Assignment: CurriculumA

2. Knowledge of tools for assessing program outcome and school climate 

The following three courses address primarily the assessment of programs in school context: 

Coun 241: This course focuses on the organization, administration, and evaluation of counseling programs.  It uses a model that centers on the service provider as being sensitive to the subjective reality of clients with whom assessments are applied as a method of evaluation and possible change.  Relevant objectives include:

Objective 1: Familiar with major philosophical and theoretical approaches to coordinating and supervising of counseling programs at elementary, middle and high school levels.

Objective 4:Able to review school counseling budgeting procedures, methods used in counseling programs, and methods of evaluating school counseling programs through approved research procedures

Objective 6: Able to develop and implement plans directed at affecting school climate by bringing about change in an organization or with an individual(s) within an organization.

Assignment: OrganizationA

Coun 242:

Assignment: Consultant interview:  Submit a summary of your interview.  The interview will address the following area:  what programs and strategies does the consultant employ when working with school staff and parents to alleviate school failure and increase pupil success?   The interview will include the following questions:

  1. What specific programs and strategies does the consultant use?
  2. What does the consultant see as the biggest problem(s) facing counselors in working with school staff, parents and students?
  3. What strategies does the consultant employ to overcome these problems?

The objectives of this course address programmatic issues.  Students are given the opportunities to develop and evaluate prevention programs, pupil advocacy programs, and parent education programs.  Relevant objectives are as follows:

Objective 1Develop methods of working with school staff and parents which include planned prevention programs to help alleviate school failure and promote ways of increasing pupil successes K-12 school settings. 

Objective4.  Investigate procedures for developing methods to be used in formulating pupil advocacy programs.

Objective 5.  Design and apply appropriate parent education program for specific population group.

Coun 249:  While candidates apply their knowledge and skills in field practice in elementary school, they meet in class to discuss the integration of concepts in certain chapters in the textbook.  The chapter assignments include:

Chapter 3, Comprehensive School Counseling Programs: Consult with your field supervisor and relevant school personnel.

Identify if a comprehensive school counseling plan is in place. 

If yes, describe and assess their plan and if no, describe how you will develop a comprehensive school plan at your school site.

Chapter 5, Developing a Program:Follow the guidelines of the chapter on planning, organizing, implementing, and evaluating.

Describe how you will develop one prevention program at your school site

Chapter 10, Evaluation of a School Counseling Program

Evaluate the counseling program at your school that addresses: guidance curriculum, individual planning, responsive services, system support.

3. Application of technology in data collection, analysis, and assessment 

Technology is applied inside and outside class when candidates are engaged in data collection, analysis, and assessment.  Relevant activities are listed below:

Coun 203: Assignment: Candidates are given laboratory experiences with the following test instruments: Hopkins Verbal Learning Test

Coun 220: Objective: Candidates willidentify the variety of computer-based and non-computer based career resources.

Assignment: CareerA

Coun 249: Mandatory Field experience:

Become familiar with the use of school technologies for information access, teaching and learningStudents’ technological skills will be assessed by onsite supervisor when evaluating the students’ job mastery with specific regard to technological skills.

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