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Bilingual Authorization: Addendum to Common Standards

Standard 1:  Educational Leadership

The Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program is an integral part of Kremen School of Education and Human Development (KSOEHD).  The school of education holds primary responsibility for hiring faculty; program development and change; and policies and procedures.  The Dean of the School of Education has given key priority to supporting the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program.  In support, he has appointed a “Bilingual Coordinator” for the program and provided a 3-unit course release time for the duties of that position.

The Bilingual Coordinator has the leadership responsibility of implementing and monitoring a credential recommendation process that ensures that bilingual candidates recommended for a credential have met all program requirements.  The Bilingual Coordinator will also collaborate jointly with the Liberal Studies Program Coordinator, the Multiple Subject Program Coordinator, the Field Experience Coordinator, and Committee and the Administrative Advising Staff in order to ensure that bilingual candidates are placed in their appropriate courses and placements.

Additional leadership in the Bilingual Program also consists of specific faculty members from the LEE Department Bilingual Committee.   The purpose of this committee is to discuss program issues, bilingual candidate’s needs, and to make revisions to the program.   The committee meets quarterly throughout the year.  The Bilingual Advisory Committee also includes community leadership. This committee meets twice a year and consist of bilingual faculty from the LEE Department, other member of the University community, and representatives from surrounding school districts.  The purpose of this committee is to provide advising and support to the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program and to promote and refine a vision for bilingual education in the Central San Joaquin Valley.

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Standard 2:  Unit and Program Assessment and Evaluation

The Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Credential Program is an integral part of the KSOEHD Multiple Subject 2042 Credential Program that has been accredited by CCTC.  The Bilingual Coordinator serves on the Multiple Subject Program Review Committee.  This committee meets at least twice a month to discuss program issues and teacher candidate needs and to make revisions to the program.  These committees consist of representative of various programs, department chairs, Multiple Subject Coordinator, Supervisors, Administrators, Advising, and Public Schools.  As such, the Bilingual Coordinator collaborates extensively with all members of this program to ensure that the Bilingual program is meeting state’s standards and in compliance with CCTC (see Multiple Subject Credential Program Assessment).

The Multiple Subject 2042 Credential Program has received significant support from practitioners and administrators in local education agencies and from the Academic Vice President/Provost at the university.  In addition, the Dean of the School of Education has given key priority to supporting program development related to Bilingual credentials, resolving program needs, and giving emphasis on renewing Bilingual credentialing in teacher education.

All procedures, including record keeping, in the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program are the same as other credential programs, including CBEST, CSET, RICA (multiple subject), TPA and other test requirements, certificate of clearance, tuberculin test, entry interview, etc. (see Multiple Subject Credential Program Assessment).

The appropriate curriculum for the preparation of new bilingual teachers is determined by the faculty of the Fresno State Bilingual Authorization Program with input from a variety of sources including: the CCTC/NCATE standards; and suggestions from supervisors, cooperating teachers, faculty, students, alumni, and practitioners in the field. Final recommendations are made to the Dean who makes final decisions regarding curriculum policy. Any policies that affect other programs are brought before the curriculum committee.

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Standard 3: Resources

Financial Resource

The university receives a budget allocation that averaged $3,298 per FTE and the Kremen School of Education and Human Development receives an average of $4,694 per FTE due to the extensive field supervision that occurs in teacher education programs. The California State University system and the university provide budgetary support for professional development in the form of sabbaticals, scholarly activities, program innovation, travel and research. In addition to the system and university-wide support, the dean has provided a $200,000 fund to support research and grant writing for faculty within the School.  In addition, the dean has given priority to supporting program endeavors related to bilingual and multicultural education, and giving renewed emphasis to the importance of the Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program.

Annual budget resources support the core programs of the university, such as the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program. Budgeting decisions are decentralized at CSU, Fresno, so the Dean is responsible for allocating funding to departments and other entities within KSOEHD.  External funding supports numerous projects, partnerships and research initiatives. Indirect cost recovery brings significant resources to the unit each year (see Multiple Subject Credential Program Assessment)

Library Resources

The California State University, Fresno Library is the best library among the 24 campuses in the CSU System. The Arne Nixon Center for Research on Children’s Literature maintains the largest collection of multicultural children’s books for research in the West Coast. In addition, the library offers a Teacher Resource Center.  This center provides a collection of teaching materials used in pre-Kindergarten through grade 12 classrooms.  Electronic resources at the library are also extensive.  Online journal access is available from several databases including ERIC, Education Research Complete, and Education Index Retrospective.

Physical and Technological Resources

The university has ample classroom space, conference rooms, offices and computer labs.  Most of the classrooms are “smart classrooms” and most spaces at the university have wireless access.  The information technology resources within the unit support faculty, staff and student needs. Wireless and Ethernet connections are available in all classrooms, office spaces and conference rooms in the Education Building. Candidates have access to the wireless network with their personal computers. Desktop computers are also available to candidates in several locations throughout the facility. Blackboard and Task Stream are technology-based resources available to faculty and candidates. Task Stream participation is required of candidates all in initial preparation programs. Technical support within KSOEHD is available to faculty, staff and students.

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Standard 4: Faculty and Instructional Personnel

Tenure track professors who teach in the program are selected through a national search.  The KSOEHD advertises in the Chronicle for Higher Education and other publications typically viewed by minority candidates.  Candidates, who apply as a tenure track professor and will teach in this program, must show documentation that they have graduated from a respected university and have earned a doctorate (Ph.D. or Ed.D.) in bilingual/multicultural education or a related field (such as Spanish or Hmong).  Candidates nearing completion of a doctorate (ABD) may be considered for a lectureship (temporary position) with the possibility of conversion to tenure track upon completion of the doctorate.  Candidates must have at least three years of successfully teaching in K-8 classrooms. Candidates are expected to demonstrate a commitment to or potential for teaching excellence and scholarly activity at the university level.  Preference is given to candidates who have a strong background working with English learners.  Successful candidate must have the ability to work effectively with faculty, staff, and students from diverse ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic backgrounds.

Adjunct professors may also be hired when tenure track professors are not available.  They must have a master’s degree in bilingual education or related field; a strong vita that demonstrates experience in bilingual education; and the ability to communicate clearly the ideas of bilingual education.  

Both tenure track and adjunct professors are selected by a committee of professors from the department and are supported with the Division of Human Resources.

The Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program reflects the institutional commitment to the goals of cultural pluralism and ethnic diversity.  The existing Bilingual Credential Program faculty members are fluent speakers in either Spanish or Hmong languages.  The Bilingual Credential Program at this institution is over 30 years old.

The mission statement of the University and the College of Education include an explicit commitment to multicultural/ethnic diversity education and the concomitant variables necessary to deliver the core curriculum. These variables include a culturally diverse faculty, particularly with regard to race/ethnicity and gender.

Names of tenure track faculty with expertise in bilingual/multicultural areas and language proficiency:

Elsa Castillo SPAN 121 A
Cosme Zaragoza SPAN 134
Phil Gonzales CLAS 116
Stanley Lucero LEE 136
Kao-Ly Yang HMONG 100 & HMONG 101
Phong Yang LEE 129
Tony Vang LEE 135
Hank Delcore ANTH 123
Laura Alamillo EHD 170

Names of part-time faculty with experience and expertise in bilingual/multicultural areas:

Debbie Avila SPAN 119
Julio Corrella EHD 170

The quality and effectiveness of the faculty Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program (as well as other faculty in the Department) are regularly evaluated in several ways. Faculty, who work in the program, have been recognized as state and national leaders and has accepted positions/responsibilities related to teaching and education.  Faculty members serve as investigators and co-investigators on various teacher diversity grants. The faculty members have published extensively in the field of bilingual/multilingual education (see Faculty Vitas).

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Standard 5: Admission

Prior to admission into the AB 2042 Multiple Subject Credential and the Bilingual Program, a candidate must have completed or be near completion of the requirements for a baccalaureate degree.  The recommended Liberal Studies concentrations for both the AB 2042 Multiple Subject Credential and the Bilingual Credential is the Bilingual Concentration (Spanish/Hmong).  The required GPA for entry into program is 2.75 in the last 60 units or 2.67 overall (on a 4 point scale).  The application process and personal interviews are additional factors considered in determining program admittance (see Liberal Studies Blended Major and Multiple Subject Credential Program Assessment)

Assessment of Written and Oral Communication

The Bilingual Coordinator assesses oral communication of teacher candidate in either Spanish or Hmong initially in the entry interview.  The written skills are assessed throughout their course of study in the Bilingual Credential Program including SPAN 134, Spanish in Bilingual Schools, LEE 136 Teaching Content in Spanish or LEE 129, Hmong Bilingual Schools and LEE 135, Teaching Content in Hmong.

Admission to program requires that students score at the ACFLT Intermediate High level on the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Language Proficiency exam.  The exam will be administered as a part of SPAN 134 / LEE 129 and again as a part of LEE 136 / LEE 135 for students who did not reach the Intermediate High level.

Entry Interview

Candidates must successfully pass the entry interview with the Bilingual Coordinator to be admitted to the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program.  The interview involves a dialogue about the candidate's willingness to complete the program; their sensitivity to children of differing ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds; their pre-professional experiences, and their personal qualities.  These interviews are conducted in the target language in order to ascertain their language skills and their multicultural knowledge of various ethnic groups.  In addition, a Check List Advising Form is used to review prior coursework taken under the Liberal Studies Bilingual Concentration and advice on remaining courses under the Multiple Subject Program (see Check List Advising Form).

Professional Assistance

Students receive information about the on-campus Career Center at the orientation meeting at the beginning of the semester. The Program Coordinator invites a member of the Center's staff to speak to the students in the student teaching seminar. A bulletin board with up-to-date job opportunities is also maintained adjacent to the Teacher Education Office.

Personal Assistance

Faculty provides ongoing counseling in formal and informal settings with each student. Students with non-academic problems are referred to counseling, and if necessary, counseled out of the program.  Counseling services are available to all students through the Counseling Center.

The Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program believes in and practices continuous evaluation of all credential candidates.  This evaluation process assists candidates in meeting the complex and demanding requirements of the program and assesses candidates who are unable to benefit from retention.  CBEST and CSET preparation workshops are available through the Division of Continuing and Extended Education to assist students in passing the State required CBEST examination.

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Standard 6: Advice and Assistance

The Multiple Subject Credential Program, which is an integral part of the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Credential Program, has developed a handbook for student teaching, which defines the roles and responsibilities of student teachers, cooperating teachers, and university supervisors.  The handbook includes sample evaluation forms that are used to assess the teacher candidates' performance.  These materials and the attendant responsibilities are reviewed with the appropriate people at the beginning of each semester as well as in weekly seminars for student teachers (see Multiple Subject Field Work Handbook).  In addition, available fliers on course listing and pathway in obtaining Bilingual authorized credential are available online through KSOEHD website, the Bilingual Program Bulletin board (located in school of education building) and from Bilingual Coordinator (see Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program Flyer).

All university supervisors have relevant bilingual, multicultural and public school teaching experience.   They have theoretical knowledge and practical experience appropriate to the student teacher placement level.  They are available to conduct observations and conferences with each student teacher as stipulated in the Supervision Policy and Procedures (see Multiple Subject Supervisor Manual).

In addition to formal arrangements, collaboration between Fresno State and the local schools exists at a number of informal levels.  Local educators are invited as guest lectures in many of the Bilingual Credential classes.  Districts hire our faculty as curriculum consultants, and faculty often volunteer services as speakers for workshops and school meetings.  In coordination with the local districts, a Teacher Employment Fair is held each year in the university campus.

Bilingual/Multilingual Expertise

The cooperating teacher and the university supervisor share responsibility for guiding, assisting, and evaluating student teachers.  Their responsibilities are delineated in the handbook, Multiple Subject Supervisor Manual, published by KSOEHD.  Many of the cooperating teachers have completed training in clinical supervision and in teaching culturally diverse classrooms.  University supervisors and the cooperating teachers have  at least three years of teaching experience in culturally diverse classrooms and have bilingual expertise or possess bilingual authorization.  Quality supervision is key to a meaningful student teaching experience in a bilingual/dual language classroom.

Guidance and Assistance Provided to Student Teachers

Program candidates begin their student teaching experience on the first day of the semester, and they complete their student teaching experience on the last day of the semester.  Candidates doing their student teaching in the fall are encouraged to work with the cooperating teacher prior to the opening of school in order to gain valuable knowledge on preparing a classroom for the first week of school.  The student teacher spends the beginning week observing the cooperating teacher.  The student teacher gradually assumes responsibilities for planning and implementing.  The student teacher takes on responsibility more rapidly and will have one week of "guided solo" and two additional weeks of total responsibility prior to the end of the student teaching assignment.    

Feedback to Student Teachers

There is a formal Mid-Semester –Teacher Candidate Assessment/Goal Setting forms and a meeting – EHD 178 (page 59-60) and EHD 170 (pages 86-87) and Final Teacher Candidate Assessment/Goal Setting Forms and a meeting – EHD 178 (page 61-62) and EHD 170 (page 88-89) and Final Certification of Competency EHD 178 (page 48-50) and Final Certification of Competency EHD 170, Final Student Teaching (page 85) (see Multiple Subject Field Work Handbook).  In addition, Student Teachers and Supervisors collaboratively complete a Professional Development Plan.  One formal Teacher Performance Assessment is completed in EHD 178 and two formal Teacher Performance Assessments are completed in final student teaching before receiving credit in the courses (see Fresno Assessment of Student Teachers Manual).

The Cooperating Teacher and University supervisor work together to strengthen the primary language skills of the candidate.  If a student teacher is having difficulties, the University supervisor has several options beginning with more frequent observations and opportunities for feedback.  Specific activities are outlined for the student teacher.  The supervisor can extend the student teacher's placement to allow time for gaining the specified skills.  The supervisor, in collaboration with the Bilingual Coordinator and the Director of Field Services, may change the student teacher's placement or require that a placement be repeated.     

At the end of the student teaching experience the candidate would receive a written evaluation from the cooperating teacher and the university supervisors.  These evaluations are used to determine eligibility for receiving a credential and become a part of the candidate's professional file.  For more detailed report on the Multiple Subject Credential, see Multiple Subject Field Work Handbook.

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Standard 7: Field Experience and Clinical Practice

Collaboration with Local School Districts

The faculty of the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program collaborates with local educators and school districts.  Its purpose is to establish an effective network in the university's five county service region through workshops, in-service programs, on-site university classes, consultancies, and placement of CSU Fresno graduates in local school systems.  Currently, the program is in the process of establishing the Central Valley Bilingual/Dual Language Consortium. This consortium will advise the coordinators and faculty on matters concerning the overall quality of the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program and the relationship of the program to the region's elementary schools. The consortium will be composed of parents, community members, teachers, administrators and faculty.  In addition, the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program will be actively involved in a Dual Language Conference on campus in January 2012.  The purpose of this conference will be to discuss what is known about language learning and teaching, to learn additional effective teaching strategies, and to acknowledge community organizations dedicated towards the education of bilingual children (See Conference Proposal).

Criteria for Selecting School Sites

Teacher candidates are required to complete three phases of field study.  Bilingual teacher candidates are assigned to complete their final students teaching in a bilingual setting. Placement of student teachers is a joint effort involving the program coordinators, the Field Placement Technician, and the principal or other local school administrator.  An on-going system of evaluation with the cooperating teacher and the university supervisor keeps the student informed of progress, and written evaluations are based on both formal field observations and informal discussions.  We have established a Consortium of Dual Language Schools that work closely in the development of effective dual language student placements for our Bilingual teacher candidates.

Criteria for the Selection of Cooperating Teachers

The selection of cooperating teachers for student teacher supervision demands consideration of multiple factors affecting the student teachers, cooperating teacher, school district and university supervisor.  Cooperating teachers are selected carefully based on experience in teaching bilingual students, a minimum of three years experience in a culturally diverse classroom, teaching English learners and their ability to guide and assist the student teacher.  The school administrator’s recommendations will be taken into consideration. The Central Valley Dual Language Consortium is extremely effective in identifying and selecting dual language cooperating teachers.

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Standard 8: District-Employed Supervisors

The Departmental Review Committee, the Department Chair, and Dean use specified criteria in the selection of faculty members for the supervision of the Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program student teachers. Included among these criteria are the possession of an appropriate teaching credential, teaching experience in a bilingual or multicultural classroom, effectiveness in working with teachers of English language students in the public school setting, strong supervisory and communication skills, and knowledge and sensitivity of cultural diversity (Multiple Subject Credential Program Assessment).

The Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program Cooperating Teachers all have extensive experience in bilingual and dual language programs and all possess the bilingual authorization (Multiple Subject Credential Program Assessment). The Bilingual/Dual Language Programs and schools that are participants/partners in our program are as follows:

Maria Maldonado Assistant Superintendent, Department of English Learner Services, Fresno Unified School District
Lisa Benavidez Principal, Ann Leavenworth Elementary, Two-Way Immersion Program, Fresno Unified School District
Misty Her South East Elementary School, Fresno Unified School District
Robb Christopherson Reagan Elementary School, Clovis Unified School District
Terry Hirschfield Principal, Laton Elementary School, Laton Unified School District, Two-Way Immersion Program

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Standard 9: Assessment of Candidate Competency

Students are required to maintain a GPA of 3.0 with no grades below a "C" to remain in the program and to be recommended for student teaching experience/practicum.  For students receiving the Fresno State Spanish Bilingual Authorization Program Credential, the student teaching assignment is in a bilingual or dual language program classroom. For students receiving a Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program Credential, student teaching assignment is in a multicultural classroom that includes Hmong-speaking children.

Documentation of successful attainment of those skills listed on the Check List Advising Form as well as completing all other program requirements is necessary for recommendation by the University for the Preliminary AB 2042 Credential (See Check List Advising Form).

The goals of the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program are built on our KSOEHD Multiple Subject (2042) Credential Program approved by the Commission on Teacher Credentialing and are consonant with the mission statements of California State University, Fresno; the College of Education; and the Department of Teacher Education. The focus of the program is on the professional preparation of candidates who will be effective teachers in increasingly diverse public school settings.

Brief Overall Design of the Program

The Bilingual Coordinator, in collaboration with the Liberal Studies Coordinator, the Multiple Subject Program Coordinator, the Director of Field Placement, faculty and university supervisors, work jointly to oversee the coursework of bilingual teacher candidates, as part of the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program.  This effort includes monitoring and assessing student development and achievement, including language proficiency during candidate’s enrollment in the Liberal Studies and 2042 Multiple Subject Credential Program.

As part of the Multiple Subject Credential Program, teacher candidates are assessed on effectiveness through the Fresno Assessment of Student Teachers (FAST). This performance assessment is locally designed and approved by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing.  The assessment design includes four complex pedagogical tasks, each accompanied by a multi-dimensional scoring scale, to evaluate the thirteen Teacher Performance Expectations (TPEs).  Each FAST task is embedded into a specific field experience within a sequential credential program. (See FAST Manual)  This helps assure that TPE-related knowledge and skills have been taught and formatively assessed in coursework, and applied with feedback in fieldwork situations prior to being  assessed through FAST (see FAST Manual).

The Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program coursework is aligned with the Commission on Teaching Credentialing (CTC) bilingual program standards.  As such, the CTC bilingual program standards are embedded within the various courses in both the Spanish and Hmong programs (see course syllabi).  Under the Liberal Studies major, students are requires to have a 3.00 overall GPA in their course work with no grade lower than a “C”.  Documentation in meeting the program standards by student candidates have been embedded within the various five required Spanish and Hmong courses in terms of assignments, exams, projects, and field experiences (Check List Advising Form)

Upon completing their Liberal Studies Concentration, the bilingual candidates apply and seek admission to the Multiple Subject Credential Program.  Part of the admission is declaring their interest in a bilingual credential to the KSOEHD admission officer.  Once student has been admitted to the 2042 Multiple Subject Program, the Admission Officer will provide a copy of that declaration to the Bilingual Coordinator.  This document provides evidence to Bilingual Coordinator that the candidate has met his/her requirements to enter the Multiple Subject Program, including passing grades in their Spanish or Hmong concentration.  In the Multiple Subject Program, bilingual teacher candidates will continue completing remaining courses in their bilingual program.

To enter the Multiple Subject Program with a Bilingual Authorization Program, the candidates must demonstrate appropriate level of language proficiency.  As part of the initial interview to the Multiple Subject Program, the Bilingual Coordinator will meet with bilingual teacher candidate to review previous coursework and assessment of language proficiency (administered in either SPAN 134 or LEE 129).  This interview will allow the bilingual candidate to formally meet the Bilingual Coordinator and seek further guidance on remaining course work as desired by candidate.  This initial interview will also provide time for candidates who may not have obtained a language score (in either Spanish or Hmong) at the “Intermediate High” or beyond to discuss strategies on meeting this criterion (see American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Language (ACTFL)).

To exit the Multiple Subject Program with a Bilingual Authorization Program, the candidate will meet with Bilingual Coordinator to review successful completion of require course work and demonstrated at least an “Intermediate high” level or above in their language proficiency in their specific language (Spanish or Hmong).

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