Standard 9:Equity, Diversity and Access to the Curriculum for All Children
Through planned prerequisites and/or professional preparation, the teacher preparation program ensures the following:
Candidates examine principles of educational equity and diversity and their implementation in curriculum content and school practices for all students.
The Multiple Subject credential program at Fresno State provides each candidate instruction
and practice in examining principles of educational equity and diversity and their
implementation in curriculum content and school practices for all students. Throughout
the program, candidates are prepared to provide all students equitable access to the
core curriculum through appropriate teaching strategies acquired in content-specific
pedagogy classes and practices in concurrent field placements. Through coursework
and fieldwork, candidates learn about the ways in which their teaching practices and
student learning are shaped, informed, and impacted by diversity in California society,
including differences in socioeconomic status. Candidates are aware of their legal,
ethical, and professional obligations to the students of California and learn how
to work to ensure educational equity for all children. The program includes a series
of planned experiences in which candidates learn to identify, analyze, and minimize
personal and institutional bias through self-questioning, journaling, simulation activities,
and group discussion.
Candidates provide all students equitable access to the core curriculum and all aspects of the school community. The program provides opportunities for candidates to learn how to maximize academic achievement for students from all ethnic, race, socio-economic, cultural, academic, and linguistic or family backgrounds; gender, gender identity, and sexual orientation; students with disabilities and advanced learners; and students with a combination of special instructional needs.
As a part of their required professional sequence of coursework, candidates are taught
the importance of ongoing assessment and a variety of assessment techniques to recognize
students’ needs. In CI 171: Understanding the Learner, Instructional Design, and Assessment, they are introduced
to principles of assessment as well as the importance of observation in classroom
settings [See CI 171 syllabus: Design for Instruction and Case Study Assignments]. Candidates are given multiple opportunities to refine their observation skills
and recognition of students with special needs through different structured observation
tasks in EHD 50: Introduction to Education; EHD 174: Field Study A: Grades 4-8; EHD 178: Field Study B: Grades K-3; SPED 179: Differentiated Instruction and Classroom Management; and, EHD 170: Final Student Teaching.
Candidates are presented information with the tenant that all students can learn. In order to learn students must have access to quality instruction and materials. The responsibility of the classroom teacher to assess for understanding and to intervene to ensure maximum academic achievement are taught through examination of assessment procedures and learning/ instructional styles in CI 171: Understanding the Learner, Instructional Design, and Assessment and in SPED 179: Differentiated Instruction and Classroom Management curriculum and further explored as applied to lesson planning in LEE 172: Cultural and Language Contexts of the Classroom. A wide variety of literacy assessments are taught and practiced in LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in Grades K-3, and LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8. In each of the reading classes, candidates are required to complete a battery of literacy assessments on an individual student and then to prepare an instructional plan for that student, based upon assessment results. [See course syllabi.]
The assignments in SPED 179: Differentiated Instruction and Classroom Management and EHD 170: Final Student Teaching require that candidates observe, assess, prescribe and implement
lessons incorporating proven instructional strategies to meet the needs of individual
students in their class. The process for utilizing RtI and for submitting students’
names to the school’s ‘Student Study Team’ and/or recommending students for special
education consideration is examined in CI 171: Understanding the Learner, Instructional Design, and Assessment, SPED 179: Differentiated Instruction and Classroom Management [See SPED 179 syllabus.], and during the Final Student Teaching ( EHD 170) semester. The Multiple Subject credential program at Fresno State is committed
to producing teacher candidates who recognize the need to plan for all students and
to differentiate instruction when needed. They must also possess the tools to identify
individual student needs and provide effective instruction for all students.
Candidates are prepared to effectively teach diverse students by increasing candidates’
knowledge and understanding of the background experiences, languages, skills and abilities
of student populations; and by teaching them to apply appropriate pedagogical practices
that provide access to the core curriculum and lead to high achievement for all students.
The cultural diversity of the population in the San Joaquin Valley service area of California State University, Fresno is an ever-present consideration in the Multiple Subject Credential program. Cultural traditions are formally studied in several Social Science, Chicano Latin Studies, Humanities, Language, and Ethnic Studies courses, which satisfy general education requirements, and in LEE 172: Cultural and Language Contexts in the Classroom, an education course required of all candidates. [See LEE 172: Primary Learning Outcomes.] In addition, this course addresses the cultural history of different student populations, the inclusion of cultural, traditional, and community values in the instructional program. Candidates study language acquisition as a part of LEE 172: Cultural and Language Contexts in the Classroom and, again, as it applies to beginning reading in LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in
K-3. Strategies for making core curriculum accessible to all students are studied
in each on the content-specific pedagogy classes ( CI 175: Science Instruction and Applied Technology; CI 176: Mathematics Instruction and Applied Assessment; LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8; LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in Grades K-3; and SPED 179: Differentiated Instruction and Classroom Management). [See course syllabi.]
Each candidate in the Multiple Subject Credential program participates in field assignments,
which by design include diverse placements. For example, candidates experience children
with different ethnic backgrounds, culture, language, socioeconomic conditions, grade
and instructional levels different from their own. Beginning with undergraduate coursework,
the candidates have a field assignment linked to elementary classrooms. This is done
in EHD 50: Introduction to Teaching. The candidates have an early fieldwork experience
( EHD 174: Field Study A: Grades 4-8) in a diverse placement. In addition EHD 178: Field Study B and EHD 170: Field Study C: Final Student Teaching provide opportunities for experiences to
effectively teach diverse students.
During the student teaching experience, candidates will be placed in at least two
different grades and socio-economic levels. Three different placements afford the
opportunity to prepare and use instructional strategies, activities, and materials
that are appropriate for students with diverse needs, interests, and developmental
Candidates study and discuss the historical and cultural traditions of the cultural
and ethnic groups in California society, and examine effective ways to include cultural
traditions and community values and resources in the instructional program of a classroom.
All candidates in the Multiple Subject credential program participate in a multicultural
field assignment while enrolled in EHD 174: Field Study A: Grades 4-8; EHD 178: Field Study B: Grades K-3; and EHD 170: Field Study C: Final Student Teaching assignments provide additional opportunities
including experience with cultural diverse populations. Cultural traditions are formally
studied in several Social Science, Chicano Latin Studies, Humanities, Language, and
Ethnic Studies courses, which satisfy general education requirements, and further
explored in relation to school populations and teaching responsibilities in LEE 172: Cultural and Language Contexts of the Classroom, an education course required of
all candidates. [See LEE 172 syllabus.]
In addition, teacher candidates are enrolled in CI 171: Understanding the Learner, Instructional Design and Assessment and LEE 172: Cultural and Language Contexts of the Classroom, which address the inclusion of
cultural, traditional, and community values in the instructional program. SPED 179: Differentiated Instruction and Classroom Management examines family structures and
cultural beliefs as they relate to students with learning differences and the IEP
process. [See SPED 179 syllabus.] In EHD 170, Final Student Teaching, candidates are required to design a Teaching Project with
lesson plans in which cultural and community values and resources are explored. [See EHD 170 syllabus.] All lesson plans are required to contain multicultural considerations as well
as adaptations of instruction necessary to make curriculum accessible to English learners.
Candidates develop the ability to recognize and eliminate bias in order to create
an equitable classroom community that contributes to the physical, social, emotional,
and intellectual safety of all students. The program includes a series of planned
experiences in which candidates learn to identify, analyze, and minimize personal
and institutional bias.
Experiences where reflection of attitudes toward people of different cultural or socio-economic
groups are addressed is in SSCI (Social Science) 180, which is now part of the GE
and is required of all Liberal Studies major candidates. During the professional
preparation and field experience components, there are regularly scheduled meetings
with university supervisors where there is reflective discussion of everyday activities,
including examination of attitudes. In addition, during Multiple Subject credential
coursework, each candidate discusses, analyzes, and assesses his/her attitudes about
diverse groups through examinations, presentations, simulations, and interviews with
school and community groups.
Readings and discussion in LEE 172: Cultural and Language Contexts in the Classroom directly address the classroom considerations
necessary to ensure the physical, social, emotional, and intellectual safety of all
students. Through planned experiences in class activities and interview reflections,
SPED 179: Differentiated Instruction and Classroom Management develops these further when
meeting needs through differentiated instruction and in discussions of the concepts
of equal versus fair. [See SPED 179 syllabus.]
Requirements of EHD 170: Final Student Teaching provide candidates the opportunity to further explore their
attitudes and abilities to build and maintain a healthy classroom environment and
climate as they demonstrate the implementation of the California Standards for the
Teaching Profession. [See EHD 170 syllabus.] Both FAST assessments completed in final student teaching — the Teaching Sample
Project and the Holistic Proficiency Project — require students to consider their
own biases when planning, teaching, and assessing students. (See FAST Manual.)
Candidates have the opportunity to systematically examine his/her stated and implied
beliefs, attitudes and expectations about diverse students, families, schools, and
communities, and to apply pedagogical practices that foster high expectations for
academic performance from all participants in all contexts.
Prior to the professional preparation program Liberal Studies candidates are required
to take either Psych 169, RA 125, or SPED 120, courses which address equity in gender, race, linguistic and cultural issues as
they apply to pedagogical practices.
Gender-bias is explored in several places in the Multiple Subject credential program.
Readings and discussions related to the fair treatment regarding gender are a part
of the assignments and class activities in LEE 172: Cultural and Language Contexts of the Classroom. Strategies for providing fair treatment
to all students are addressed in several ways in CI 171: Understanding the Learner, Instructional Design and Assessment as a part of classroom
routines and management demonstrations and activities. Issues related to gender,
special needs, and differentiation are addressed in SPED 179: Differentiated Instruction and Classroom Management. [See SPED 179 syllabus.] All field experience and student teaching assignments ( EHD 174: Field Study A: Grades 4-8, EHD 178: Field Study B: Grades K-3, and EHD 170: Final Student Teaching requires candidates to reflect on their classroom practices.
University supervisors conduct periodic seminars during the field experience and student
teaching semesters. The discussion of gender bias, fair and effective classroom management
approaches, and access to core curriculum are among the seminar topics explored.
One of the first assignments in the Multiple Subject credential program requires candidates
to examine their beliefs about education in the form of a philosophy statement that
is written in LEE 172: Cultural and Language Contexts of the Classroom. This assignment gives candidates
an opportunity to formally examine their thoughts about the values and beliefs necessary
to meet the needs of all students. Their written statements are then used as astarting-point in examining their own beliefs and values. [See LEE 172 syllabus.] High expectations and appropriate instructional strategies for all students are
discussed and practiced through activities and assignments in SPED 179: Differentiated Instruction and Classroom Management. [See SPED 179 syllabus.] The approach is used again at the end of the final student teaching placement
when they are required to prepare their “official statement of educational philosophy”
as a part of their placement file.
Candidates in the Multiple Subject credential program are required to complete a series
of coursework in which they acquire knowledge about teaching strategies related to
specific curricular areas. In all classes, strategies for teaching English learners
and the adaptation of curriculum materials for students whose primary language is
other than English is explicitly addressed ( CI 171, 175, 176; LEE 172, 173, 177; & SPED 179). Structured practice in the courses requires candidates to apply language acquisition
principles as they teach public school children. Each candidate has an opportunity
in the program to examine and evaluate his/her own attitude towards people of different
cultural and socioeconomic groups.
As a part of the candidate’s professional portfolio, which is organized based on California Standards for the Teaching Profession and the Teaching Performance Expectations, teacher candidates are required to complete a self-evaluation of teaching practices and attitudes toward diverse populations, including ethnic, language, SES, and gender diversity. This evaluation is used in conjunction with site and university supervisors’ formative assessment process to support the ongoing growth and development of the candidates’ understanding of objective strategies for providing equitable access to the core curriculum for all students. Portfolios are continually reviewed during the student teaching process as part of a formative evaluation leading to fulfillment of requirements based in the performance assessments.