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Standard 8: Pedagogical Preparation for Subject-Specific Content Instruction

Standard 8-B:  Pedagogical Preparation for Subject-Specific Content Instruction by Single Subject (SS) Candidates

In the subject to be authorized by the single subject teaching credential, the preliminary teacher preparation program provides substantive instruction and supervised practice that effectively prepare each candidate for an SS Credential to plan and deliver content-specific instruction that is consistent with (a) the state-adopted academic content standards for students and/or curriculum framework in the content area, and (b) the basic principles and primary values of the underlying discipline. The program provides multiple opportunities for each SS candidate (a) to learn, practice and reflect on the specific pedagogical knowledge and skills that comprise the Commission adopted subject-specific Teaching Performance Expectations (TPE 1B), and (b) to apply the TPEs to instruction in the subject to be authorized by the credential.In the program, each SS candidate demonstrates basic ability to:  plan and organize instruction to foster studentachievement of state-adopted K-12 academic content standards for students in the subject area; use instructional strategies, materials, technologies and other resources to make content accessible to students; and interrelate ideas and information within and across major subdivisions of the subject.

8B(a)Mathematics.During interrelated activities in program coursework and fieldwork, candidates learn specific teaching strategies that are effective in supporting them to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in mathematics (7-12). They enable students to understand basic mathematical computations, concepts, and symbols, use them to solve common problems, and apply them to novel problems. They help students understand different mathematical topics and make connections among them. Candidates help students solve real-world problems using mathematical reasoning and concrete, verbal, symbolic, and graphic representations. They provide a secure environment for taking intellectual risks and approaching problems in multiple ways. Candidates model and encourage students to use multiple ways of approaching mathematical problems, and they encourage discussion of different solution strategies. They foster positive attitudes toward mathematics, and encourage student curiosity, flexibility, and persistence in solving mathematical problems.

Additionally, single subject candidates help students in Grades 7-12 to understand mathematics as a logical system that includes definitions, axioms, and theorems, and to understand and use mathematical notation and advanced symbols. They assign and assess work through progress monitoring and summative assessments that include illustrations of student thinking such as open-ended questions, investigations, and projects.

In CI 161 Methods and Materials in Secondary Teaching-Mathematics, candidates learn to recognize and teach logical connections across major concepts and principles of the state adapted K-12 academic content standards for students in Mathematics (Grades 7-12). Candidates in the class also become familiar with the Mathematical Frameworks for California Public Schools.  Students learn about various strands in the content standards and what is expected at each grade level.  Candidates learn about novel and interesting problems that they can possibly use in their classrooms. Candidates get a chance to work on the problems and to talk about the skills that they are expected to enhance through the problems.

They explore multiple representations in teaching and learning mathematics. Candidates learn to use various tools such as manipulatives and technology in teaching various topics in mathematics. They learn about the common content related mistakes that beginning teachers make in their teaching. Also they learn about common mistakes their students make when they learn various mathematics content. Candidates learn how to select effective mathematics problems and textbooks that will enhance their students’ learning. Also students learn how to develop assessment tools that will enhance student learning

Relevant activities and assignments are as follows:

Candidates search, examine and analyze Mathematical Frameworks for California Public Schools. They particularly focus on content standards in grades 7-12. The activity is called Framework jigsaw.

Students were given a writing assignment asking them to compare the expectations of NCTM Principles and Standards and California’s mathematics standards.

Working on interesting mathematical problems, presenting solutions, and conducting discussions about the problem solutions and use in 7-12 classrooms.

Candidates investigate multiple representation expectations from Standards and Frameworks. Students work on group projects enhancing mathematics lessons using manipulative and technological tools such as calculators, the Internet, and computer software.

Candidates do “sample” teaching and have follow-up discussions.

Candidates do an analysis project, student assessment activities, and writing assignments.

Relevant materials used are as follows:

Candidates were provided copies of Mathematical Frameworks for California Public Schools. They also used Internet search and URL to find it and look at it online.

NCTM standards and frameworks, handouts explaining how to use various solution strategies and about using various educational and technological tools.

Selected reading from various mathematics education texts. Various school-adapted textbooks.

Sample problems from various exams (GSE, CAHSEE, SAT, etc.)

8B(a) Science. During interrelated activities in program coursework and fieldwork, candidates learn specific teaching strategies that are effective in supporting them to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in science (7-12). They balance the focus of instruction between science information, concepts, and principles. Their explanations, demonstrations and class activities serve to illustrate science concepts, principles, scientific investigation, and experimentation. Candidates emphasize the importance of accuracy, precision, and estimation. Candidates encourage students to pursue science interests, especially students from groups underrepresented in science careers. When live animals are present in the classroom, candidates teach students to provide ethical care. They demonstrate sensitivity to students' cultural and ethnic backgrounds in designing science instruction. CI 161 Methods and Materials in Secondary Teaching–Science focuses on: 

-Translation of research findings in science teaching and learning into classroom practice.
- Familiarity with major reform initiatives and new standards in science education today.-Critical appraisal of current information about the nature of science.-Honing teaching skills through micro-teaching in the methods class.
Familiarity with effective science teaching delivery systems and models such as SS & C, STS, etc.
Identification of significant interrelationships that exist among science, technology, and society.
Integration of environmental education into the teaching of middle and secondary school science.
Familiarity with innovative approaches to evaluation of student performance in science.
Familiarity with the world of computer and laser technology and its application to science teaching and learning.
Multicultural science classrooms and strategies for effective science teaching.
Providing equal access in science for all students through thoughtful instruction and assessment.
-Development of a full unit of instruction for science training.

Encourage diverse student to pursue science interests. Students are expected to use references to ideas and practices from a range of cultures in an effort to make the activities more relevant to all students, and especially underrepresented students. When discussing major ideas in science and some of the major theories and scientific advancements, students are expected to include examples of contributions to science made from non-western civilizations including the Mayan and Aztec civilizations among others .The purpose of this is to send the message that all students have the potential to do science and their ancestors have. Students are encouraged to bring speakers into their classes, especially speakers from under represented populations to talk about their STEM careers and how they were able to get to where they are now as professionals in a STEM career. The idea here is that students see role models and build self-confidence in their own ability to go into STEM fields. Faculty from different STEM disciplines (biology, earth and environmental science, physics, computer science, chemistry, psychology, and mathematics) are invited to discuss career options in their fields during a STEM Career Awareness evening. Included among those participating are those from typically underrepresented groups. We also work with the Science and Health Science Career Option Office in our College of Science and Mathematics which provides a wealth of STEM career reference materials highlighted on their Website to students in the science methods class. Also, the local MESA director visits the methods class to talk about the MESA (Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement) initiatives to recruit K-12 students into STEM fields while also  recruiting our preservice teachers as mentors for MESA events.

8B(c) History-Social Science. During interrelated activities in program coursework and fieldwork, candidates learn specific teaching strategies that are effectivein supporting them to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in history-social science (7-12). They enable students to learn and use analytic thinking skills in history and social science while attaining the state-adopted academic content standards for students. They use timelines and maps to reinforce students’ sense of temporal and spatial scale. Candidates teach students how social science concepts and themes provide insights into historical periods and cultures. They help students understand events and periods from multiple perspectives by using simulations, case studies, cultural artifacts, works of art and literature, cooperative projects, and student research activities.Additionally, History-Social Science single subject candidates connect essential facts and information to broad themes, concepts and principles, and they relate history-social science content to current or future issues. They teach students how cultural perspectives inform and influence understandings of history. They select and use age-appropriate primary and secondary documents and artifacts to help students understand a historical period, event, region, or culture. Candidates ask questions and structure academic instruction to help students recognize prejudices and stereotypes. They create classroom environments that support the discussion of sensitive issues (e.g., social, cultural, religious, race, and gender issues), and encourage students to reflect on and share their insights and values. They design activities to illustrate multiple viewpoints on issues. Candidates monitor the progress of students as they work to understand, debate, and critically analyze social science issues, data, and research conclusions from multiple perspectives.In CI 161 Methods and Materials in Secondary Teaching–Social Science, students learn to do the following:

Implement state-adopted K-12 academic content standards for students in history while helping student to use history-social science analysis skills at intermediate and advanced levels;
Apply social science concepts to historical issues and enrich the study of history through in-depth case studies, historical literature, and cross-cultural activities.
Encourage civic participation through studies of democratic civic values and constitutional principles;
Deal honestly and accurately with controversial issues in historical or contemporary contexts;
Discuss important roles of religion in world and United States history without bias;
Incorporate a range of critical thinking skills and academic study skills into social studies instruction; and
Utilize active forms of social science learning with all students, including simulations, debates, research studies and cooperative projects.

8B(d) English. During interrelated activities in program coursework and fieldwork, candidates learn specific teaching strategies that are effectivein supporting them todeliver a comprehensive program of systematic instruction in English, as defined by the California Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). They learn and practice ways to:

Differentiate instruction based on the needs and strengths of the range of learners in the classroom, including English learners, struggling readers and writers, advanced learners, students who use non-standard English, and students with disabilities.
Assess student progress both formally and informally to inform and plan instruction that advances the learning of all students.
Connect reading, writing, and oral language processes in an integrated fashion. 
Teacher candidates in English understand, plan, design, and implement instruction that includes the following:
Word analysis, fluency, and systematic vocabulary development, as evidenced by the use of phonological, morphological, and derivational systems of orthographic development.
Reading comprehension, including promoting students’ ability to access grade-level texts of increasing depth and complexity and activate background knowledge, make connections, synthesize information, and evaluate texts.Purposes and characteristics of the major genres of literature.
Literary response and analysis and critique of texts and media for point of view, bias, power, validity, truthfulness, persuasive techniques, and appeal to both friendly and critical audiences.
Writing instruction (inclusive of the writing process) on conventions, domains (i.e., response to literature, informational, persuasive, and technical), research, and applications that allow students to produce complex texts.
Academic language development emphasizing discourse that leads to the production of complex texts.
Incorporation of technology into language arts as a tool for conducting research.
Strategies and systematic guidance so that students select texts for reinforcement of independent reading habits.
Opportunities for listening and speaking, including comprehension, organization and delivery of oral communication, and analysis and evaluation of oral and media communications.
Instruction in speaking applications including grade-level genres and their characteristics. 

CI 161 Methods and Materials in Secondary Teaching - English is organized in three sections: teaching reading in the English/Language Arts classroom, teaching literature/literary interpretation, and teaching writing.  Primary texts in the course educate students about literacy, reader-response theory, composition theory, California standards and related subjects. The text gives examples of thematic units that integrate the four elements of Language Arts instruction: reading, listening, speaking, and writing. In class and in the readings, students come to understand how student-centered, constructivist pedagogy is expressed in the English/Language Arts classroom.  In addition, students are required to learn about Internet research and actually do research applicable to teaching by doing such things as consulting the state of California’s reading list website.Curriculum design pervades the class, as students make the transition from thinking like a student to thinking like a teacher. Students in CI 161 talk about not only how to teach English/Language Arts, but why certain activities are meaningful and others are not.  Students must do extensive metacognitive work to discover their own reading, writing, and interpretative strategies in order to better help their students discover the same. They frequently reflect on what they are learning and work to understand how theory informs practice.In the teaching literature section of the class, candidates study not only how to teach literature emphasizing reader-response theory, they also study how to approach differences in genre in secondary classrooms:  fiction, poetry, non-fiction.  Students learn how to use tools like literal meaning and close readings in order to help their students learn how to interpret texts.As stated before, candidates study how to teach reading, literature, and writing, but oral language permeates these strands as students learn, for example, how to do read a-louds to teach reading, group discussions to teach literature, and peer editing to teach writing. Although the course separates these three areas in order to facilitate student learning about theory and practice, we emphasize throughout the semester that these three areas can’t be separated within a secondary classroom, that each must support and develop students in the other areas.Student coursework in linguistics prepares students in CI 161 to talk about teaching grammar in the context of writing. In addition, students learn about building vocabulary in the section on teaching reading.A sample of relevant activities/assignments follows:

Designing thematic units that join together the integrated Language Arts in helping students understand a theme or issue.  CI 161 students demonstrate their overall understanding of how to teach literature, reading, writing, listening, and speaking thematically.

Double Entry Journals (DEJ) help students understand one method to help their secondary students work on reading comprehension.
Thematic Unit assignments ask students to think about specific areas of curriculum design:  teaching reading, teaching literature, teaching writing, doing internet research, and using professional development materials to influence their classroom practices.
Exams ask students to demonstrate their theoretical understanding for designing curriculum. 

8B(e) Art.  During interrelated activities in program coursework and fieldwork, candidates learn specific teaching strategies that are effective in supporting them to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in Art (Grades 7-12). They are able to strategically plan, implement, and evaluate instruction that assures that students meet or exceed the visual arts content standards. They balance instruction between the gathering of information, the development of skills and techniques, and the expression of ideas in both written and visual forms. Candidates for a single subject credential in art model and encourage student creativity, flexibility, and persistence in solving artistic problems. They provide secure environments that allow students to take risks and approach aesthetic problems in multiple ways. Their explanations, demonstrations, and planned activities serve to involve students in learning experiences that help them process and respond to sensory information through the language and skills unique to the visual arts.Additionally, single subject candidates help students discover ways to translate thoughts, perceptions, and ideas into original works of art using a variety of media and techniques. They establish and monitor procedures for the safe care, use, and storage of art equipment and materials. Candidates understand and are able to teach students about the historical contributions and cultural dimensions of art, providing insights into the role and development of the visual arts in past and present cultures throughout the world. They emphasize the contributions of art to culture, society, and the economy, especially in California. Teacher candidates guide students as they make informed critical judgments about the quality and success of artworks, analyzing the artist’s intent, purpose, and technical proficiency. Where appropriate, they connect and apply what is learned in the visual arts to other subject areas. Candidates understand how to relate the visual arts to life skills and lifelong learning; they provide information about opportunities for careers in art.Students in CI 161 Methods and Materials in Secondary Teaching-Art are required to read and demonstrate their understanding of the Visual and Performing Arts Framework and Content Standards for the Visual Arts through class discussion, by creating a graphic organizer of this material, and by referencing these two documents throughout their final curriculum unit project.  These two documents provide the underpinning of the methods course in the following specific ways:ARTISTIC PERCEPTION and AESTHETIC VALUINGStudents are required to complete assigned reading on both of these topics as well as use the art criticism methods discussed in classroom, gallery, and museum exercises, games, and critiques (both oral informal as well as formal written forms).CREATIVE EXPRESSIONStudents identify special strengths and perceived weaknesses in their studio backgrounds, preparing a final portfolio that demonstrates their competency with typical media processes used in secondary school art programs. HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXTStudents are required to complete an extensive LIBRARY RESOURCES ASSIGNMENT on art, artists, and art movements, using electronic databases, reference texts, the Curriculum/Juvenile Collection, periodical references and databases, the Internet, and audio-video resources in three collections.  Students present the results of their research orally and in written form as the BACKGROUND section of their final curriculum unit project.CONNECTION, RELATIONSHIPS AND APPLICATIONSStudents are required to correlate at least one lesson in their final curriculum unit plan with another discipline, examining the Content Standards on-line for the performing arts disciplines as well as English, History, Social Studies, and Mathematics.

8B(f) Music. During interrelated activities in program coursework and fieldwork, candidates learn specific teaching strategies that are effective in supporting them to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in Music (Grades 7-12). They model highly developed aural musicianship and aural analysis skills, teach music theory and analysis (including transcription of musical excerpts; error detection; analysis of form, style, and compositional devices; harmonic progressions and cadences), and can teach students to read and notate music, understand the techniques of orchestration and develop facility in transposition. Candidates model expressive and skillful performance by voice or on a primary instrument, and are proficient in keyboard skills. They use effective conducting techniques and teach students to sight sing, sight read, improvise, compose, and arrange music. Candidates use wide knowledge of Western and non-Western works in their instruction. They help students understand the roles of musicians, composers, and general instruments in diverse cultures and historical periods, and identify contributions of diverse cultural, ethnic, and gender groups and well-known musicians in the development of musical genres.Candidates instruct students in voice, keyboard, woodwinds, brass, strings, guitar, and percussion. They use a variety of instrumental, choral and ensemble rehearsal techniques and employ an understanding of developmental stages of learning in relation to music instruction.Candidates enable students to understand aesthetic valuing in music and teach them to respond to, analyze, and critique performances and works of music, including their own. They teach the connections and relationships between music and the other arts as well as between music and other academic disciplines. They inform students of career and lifelong learning opportunities available in the field of music, including media and entertainment industries. Candidates use various learning approaches and can instruct students in using movement to demonstrate rhythm and expressive nuances of music. They instruct using a broad range of repertoire and literature and evaluate those materials for specific educational purposes. They use various strategies for sequencing, planning, and assessing music learning in general music and performance classes including portfolio, video recording, audio recording, adjudication forms, and rubrics.The topics examined in this course include the following:Music Advocacy
Historical context of the music teaching profession
CA Standards for Music Education
Sequencing music instruction
Necessary music content
Learning outcomes
Planning for music instruction
Methods of teaching music---overview
The Kodály Method
The Orff Method
Music Learning Theory (Gordon)
Choosing literature
Proper class/rehearsal procedure
Assessment in Music
Measurement and Evaluation in music
Aptitude and achievement in music
Appropriate tests for measuring aptitude and achievement
The use of rubrics in assessing music
Assessment issues continued
Giving grades
Budgeting for a music program
Student Demo-lessons and peer critique
Classroom management
Electronic resources---management and productivity software
Microsoft Office
Open Office
Electronic resources---music-specific
Zoom H4 and Zoom Q3
English Language Learners in the music classroom
Reflecting on the teaching process
Electronic resources continued
Audio/video preparation and editing
Social media
Issues facing music education
Diminishing funding
Developing a teaching philosophy

The primary methods used to teach music, Orff, Kodaly, Gordon, et al, are specific methods used to teach students of all ages---K-12 as well as beginner adults (the CCTC expectation for music)---the fundamentals of music. This includes all aspects of teaching music, including the modeling of highly developed aural musicianship and aural analysis skills, teaching music theory and analysis (including transcription of musical excerpts; error detection; analysis of form, style, and compositional devices; harmonic progressions and cadences), and teaching students to read and notate music, understand the techniques of orchestration and develop facility in transposition. The major methods studied DO address all of this in a variety of ways. Kodaly and Gordon each place a premium on singing while Orff places a premium on improvisation through the use of a variety of percussion instruments and improvisatory activities. Students will learn to use these methods to teach aural skills, including reading and notation and, through the use of these methods, they will increase their ability to improvise as well as detect errors. This study of methods also addresses the other topics listed in ways too numerous to mention here.In the course, CI 161 Secondary Methods---Music, students have several assignments that address these issues. First, they are to complete a major paper that includes very practical applications of the chosen methods in the music classroom. Second, students develop a three-week unit, including two detailed lesson plans, that also address practical applications in the music classroom. Finally, students present a lesson in class that addresses a specific application to their peers. As students present their lessons in class, all members of the class learn specific skills related to the CA Standards.One assignment in CI 161 requires students to judge the performance of a high school ensemble performance at a festival. Students are assigned different types of ensembles and are given a rubric with which to assess the ensembles. To make these judgments, students must detect errors and critique tone quality and general musicianship. In addition to giving ensembles a rating, students are also expected to write their recommendations to make improvement. These ensembles are also heard in class and a class discussion is held to be certain that the problems exhibited by the ensembles are adequately heard and to see that appropriate solutions are developed.The development of the ability to teach music is highly involved and students develop their abilities in a variety of courses in the undergraduate degree, as well as the credential program.  In addition to CI 161, students enhance their abilities related to Standard 8B throughout the Student Teaching process in EHD155A and EHD155B. Under the guidance of Master Teachers and University Supervisors, students polish their abilities to detect errors and teach improvisation. They learn more about how to teach form, etc. Because their work with ensembles at the secondary level requires ensemble members to read and notate music, students polish their abilities to teach these skills in the schools.During the course of their student teaching practicum, the students are put in situations where they are required to teach the musicianship skills listed in Standard 8B. Further, their ability to do so are consistently assessed through the Fresno Assessment of Student Teachers. This assessment process is directly aligned with the CA Teaching Performance Expectations. TPE 1 is “Making Subject Matter Comprehensible to Students.” This TPE addresses “specific pedagogical skills for subject matter instruction.” Because it is prominent in the FAST, students are monitored, not only in their ability to deliver appropriate instruction, but also in their own musicianship skills.

8B(g) Physical Education. During interrelated activities in program coursework and fieldwork, candidates learn specific teaching strategies that are effectivein supporting them to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in physical education (Grades K-12). They enable students to develop the skills and knowledge they need to become active for life. Candidates balance the focus of instruction among information, concepts, and skill development to provide students with the foundation for developing active and healthy lifestyles. Candidates design a curriculum accessible to all students that includes a variety of fundamental movement, individual/dual/team sport, dance, aquatics, outdoor/adventure activities, combative, and fitness activities and that meets the developmental needs of all students, including individuals with disabilities, lower-skilled individuals, and higher performers. Candidates also demonstrate sensitivity to students’ cultural and ethnic backgrounds and include activities of global interest in the curriculum. Candidates understand how to motivate students to embrace a healthy lifestyle, to think critically and analytically in game and sports environments, and to reflect on and solve problems to minimize barriers to physical activity participation throughout life. In addition, candidates create class environments that ensure safe and productive participation in physical activity by developing procedures for care and use of equipment, carefully organizing and monitoring activities, and monitoring facilities.Important topics and objectives for CI161 Methods and Materials in Secondary Teaching-Physical Education are as follows:Developing motor skills and abilities through varied activitiesPrepare lessons for and assess a variety of developmentally appropriate motor skills for students K-12 to become competent movers.Developing health-enhancing levels of physical fitnessPrepare lessons for and assess developmentally appropriate health-enhancing fitness activities for students K-12 to maintain lifelong fitness.Knowing and understanding principles of human movementPrepare lessons for and assess concepts of human movement for students K-12Practicing social skill development and fair play in games and sports.Prepare lessons for and assess the development of physically and psychologically safe environments in which K-12 students demonstrate respect, responsible personal and social behavior, and enjoyment, challenge and self-expression.Relevant activities and assignments are as follows:

Reading textbook and answering reflection questions about:
Developing motor skills and abilities through varied activities skill development cues for skill acquisition and motor schema development, motivating student to practice observing and analyzing student performance teacher and student demonstration what to do if you cannot demonstrate (peer, video, CD, guest) lesson on planning for success factors which restrict success.

Using technology to assess skill development
Physical Education Teacher Education students receive a well-rounded program of experiences in a variety of movement forms in courses where they are exposed to and learn effective teaching behaviors using a developmental teaching approach employing task analytic teaching skills for learners of various abilities. During these courses PETE candidates design a curriculum accessible to all students that includes a variety of fundamental movement, individual/dual/team sport, dance, aquatics, outdoor/adventure activities, combative, and fitness activities and that meet the developmental needs of all students, including individuals with disabilities, lower- skilled individuals, and higher performers.  Specific courses include KINES 110 – Motor Development, KINES 131 – Analysis and Application: Individual, Team and Fitness Activities, KAC area B Rhythm (Dance), KAC area C – Aquatics, KINES 122 Non-Traditional Games and Outdoor Activities, KAC area A – Self Defense/Combative, KINES 20 – Fitness Development, KINES 25 – Principles of Strength Training, and KINES 32 – Lifetime Fitness and Wellness. 

Students are also encouraged to take additional courses to fulfill their requirements for graduation.  Students are well versed in the California Physical Education Framework and the role of fitness in the curriculum.  Fitness concepts also are addressed in a number of other courses.  Professional Preparation courses complement upper division professional preparation theory courses.  Students demonstrate proficiency in many forms of movement, explain and understand principles that govern movement and physiological principles of exercise and fitness.  By developing the ability to recognize incorrect form, technique, and poor training and conditioning principles, the students develop skills necessary to accommodate a wide range of ability (from disability to gifted) when they teach their classes.  Students in the Physical Education concentration learn how to adapt activities to meet the needs of all children in California Public Schools.  Infusing information about the range of variability (from individuals with disabilities to gifted performers) prepares our students to include all students in their classes. Adapting instruction using task analytic teaching strategies coupled with a professional approach to physical activity curriculum is incorporated and addressed in all courses in the concentration. Courses in our concentration are approached from a perspective that infuses:  inclusion, outdoor education skills, global games and cooperative activities throughout the curriculum. This is accomplished by the instructors who have solid academic backgrounds in various sub fields of Kinesiology and teach courses in the option.  This brings with it a perspective that is reflected in the way these instructors approach the professional preparation of their students in the Physical Education concentration.  Each of the major courses offers knowledge in activities, cognitive and affective skills for learners and a wide variety of communication skills from participating in small groups, learning styles, team play, problem solving,  collaboration and cooperation, critical thinking, decision making and curriculum design. Students learn how to incorporate different types of activities and games into the curriculum. The philosophic position of the Physical Education faculty is that students must employ effective teaching behaviors notwithstanding the nature or type of activity.

8B(h) Languages Other than English.  During interrelated activities in program coursework and fieldwork, candidates learn specific teaching strategies that are effective in supporting them to teach the state-adopted academic content standards in World Languages (Grades K-12). First, and most important, they demonstrate a high proficiency in the language that allows them to conduct their classes in the target language. In addition, candidates demonstrate the ability to teach in a proficiency-oriented program with a commitment to teaching and learning using the four language skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing, thus enabling their students to demonstrate communicative ability in the target language from level 1 to advanced. Candidates demonstrate knowledge of the nature of language, and of basic linguistics as well as a thorough understanding of the structural rules and practical use of the target language. Candidates also demonstrate an in-depth knowledge and understanding of the cultures and societies in which the target language is spoken, with validation and appreciation of the language and cultures of heritage and native speakers. They demonstrate that they have the requisite knowledge necessary to plan and deliver challenging lessons, to assess their students using a variety of assessment tools aligned with current methodology in second-language acquisition. Candidates emphasize critical thinking and evidence of student learning to inform their best practices in teaching. Candidates also demonstrate that they can effectively use technology to support and enhance their instruction.A fundamental expectation in CI 161 Methods and Materials in Secondary Teaching- Languages is that the FL teacher is fluent and literate in the language to be taught. This is essential, because teachers need to be capable of using the target language to deliver all aspects of instruction, including explanations and directions.  This level of fluency and literacy is generally described at the advanced level on the ACTFL proficiency scale and is the expected level of candidates for the FL SS preparation program at Fresno State University.During interrelated activities in program course work and fieldwork, SS languages candidates learn to teach the fundamental goals of the state framework, the national standards, and ACTFL’s performance guidelines. 

In mini-presentations to the class, candidates demonstrate their ability to teach in a proficiency-oriented program that facilitates communication. This instruction provides students with the ability to use the target language for the purpose of interpersonal communication, interpretation, and presentation, in writing as well as orally. Thus, candidates learn to prepare and implement activities in which students practice not only the informal language of conversations and computer chats; they also learn to speak to listeners and write for readers who do not respond and to comprehend speech or read written material when there is no chance to ask questions or respond immediately to the speaker or writer. 

Candidates have the opportunity through their mini-presentations to demonstrate that they understand the necessity for language teachers to have professional control of the language they are teaching.  Thus, at all levels including beginning, teachers use the target language as the primary medium of instruction and expect students to use the target language in all practice activities provided by the teacher. Candidates learn how to simplify their use of the target language for beginners, increasing complexity as students progress from level to level. 

Because this program requires candidates to be fluent and literate at the ACTFL advanced level, it can generally be expected their use of the language is accurate and appropriate to the situation in which it is used. 

It is expected that candidates in the FL SS program know not only usage which is appropriate to specific situations and contexts, and that they use language which at all times is accurate, but also that they know the grammar of the language. An element of the program is designed to help candidates understand the role of grammar in FL instruction. Candidates learn that effective FL programs are communication-driven, not grammar-driven. They learn how to give grammatical explanations of structures contained in the language that students can already use, and how not to correct grammar or pronunciation when students are practicing communication. 

Each candidate is prepared to teach students to use the language of study to exchange information in a variety of contexts; to assist students in developing proficiency in interpersonal, presentational, and interpretational communication; to enable students to understand cultures and societies in which the language is spoken; and develop students’ insights into the nature of language.Candidates in this course learn several major concepts that address pedagogical preparation. 

Enabling students to use the language for interpersonal, presentational, and interpretational communication is the major purpose of instruction. 

Learning to use a FL is essentially skill development. Acquiring knowledge about the language is subservient to learning to use the language. 

The teacher’s use of the target language for all aspects of instruction, including explanations and directions, is a major contributor to student acquisition of proficiency. 

Without being too demanding during the early weeks of instruction at the beginning level, teachers should expect students to use only the target language during participation in instructional activities.  

In planning and implementing instruction, and in evaluating student performance, teachers should apply an instructional sequence that consists of comprehensible input, guided practice, and communication practice, with assessment of student progress in each of these components. 

In order to develop an effective instructional sequence, candidates should first define the communication activities in which students will be assessed, them implement input, guided practice and communication activities which prepare students to perform successfully in the communication assessment activities. 

Candidates in this course acquire several major pedagogical skills. 

Candidates practice using only the level of target language which is appropriate to the level of students comprehension when giving instructions for mini-presentation activities, adhering to the following four steps: a)giving the directions in the target language; 2) demonstrating the activity with one (or more) students; 3) calling on only students to demonstrate the activity; 4) repeating the directions in the target language. 

Candidates practice making students aware of structural regularities and irregularities of language which students are practicing by eliciting concepts from the students or by using other strategies. 

Candidates practice implementing activities and projects which provide incentives for student to use only the target language during instructional activities, such as rewarding complying students by giving them coupons which are redeemable for prizes. 

Candidates use comprehensible input, guided practice, communication practice and assessment in developing all mini-presentations before the class.  For each presentation they prepare a written description of the activities by which students will demonstrate that they can successfully use the appropriate language for communication.  In addition they will in writing describe the nature of their comprehensible input, guided practice, and communication practice activities.  For all activities, they describe instructional materials which are required. 

Candidates practice adapting text activities for more effective non-text-based activities, for example by converting a non-meaningful paper and pencil drill into a meaningful activity in which students are physically active.

Candidates in this course are given specific reading assignments selected from the following publications.FL Framework, K-12, published by the California Department of Education; Standards for Foreign Language Learning, published by the National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project, FL Performance Standards, published by the American Council on the Teaching of FLs; FL Annals, a quarterly journal published by ACTFI and quarterly journals of appropriate national foreign language associations of languages represented by students in the course.

8B(i) Health Science. During interrelated activities in program coursework and fieldwork, candidates learn specific teaching strategies that are effectivein supporting them to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in Health Science (Grades 7-12). Candidates demonstrate a fundamental understanding of professional, legal, scientific, behavioral, and philosophical principles of health education and the role of the school health educator within a Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP). They demonstrate problem-solving and critical thinking skills that develop confidence in the decision making process and promote healthy behaviors. Candidates recognize differences in individual growth and development and variation in culture and family life. They assess individual and community needs for health education by interpreting health related data about social and cultural environments. They differentiate between health education practices that are grounded in scientific research and those that are not research- based. They identify opportunities for collaboration among health educators in all settings, including school and community health professions. Candidates use their analytical skills to identify behaviors that enhance and/or compromise personal health and well-being. They recognize the short-term and long-term effects of the lifestyle choices and habits of individuals and integrate higher-level thinking skills within the context of various health topics. They apply a variety of risk assessment skills and prevention strategies to health-related issues. Candidates demonstrate effective communication and advocacy skills as they relate to personal, family, and community health and health education needs in order to effectively motivate California’s diverse youth to adopt a healthy lifestyle. They understand the role of communication and communication skills in interpersonal relationships and identify strategies that encourage appropriate expression.Not applicable.

8B(j) Agriculture. During interrelated activities in program coursework and fieldwork, candidates learn specific teaching strategies that are effectivein supporting them to teach the state-adopted academic content standard for students in Agriculture (Grades 7-12). They understand how to deliver a four-year comprehensive program of systematic instruction and application of basic and advanced subject matter in animal science, plant and soil science, ornamental horticulture, agriculture business management, environmental science and natural resource management, and agricultural systems management. Explanations, demonstrations, and class and laboratory activities serve to illustrate agricultural concepts and principles, scientific investigation and experimentation, and the application of new learning. Candidates encourage students to pursue agricultural interests, especially students from groups underrepresented in agricultural careers. Candidates teach students to provide ethical care and handling of live animals. They demonstrate sensitivity to students’ cultural and ethical backgrounds in designing agriculture instruction.Single subject candidates will structure and sequence agricultural instruction to support and enhance students’ academic knowledge to meet or exceed the state-adopted academic content standards for students in grades 7-12. Additionally, single subject candidates guide, monitor, and encourage students during hands-on laboratory investigations, experiments, and practica. They establish and monitor procedures for the care, safe use, and storage of equipment and materials, and for the disposal of potentially hazardous materials.  CI 161 is the primary methods course for preparing students to teach agriculture at the secondary level.  The secondary course is CI 159.  Students successfully completing these courses have demonstrated the ability to:

Develop and/or refine a philosophy of education, including the basic principles and values of Career and Technical Education and Vocational Agriculture. 

Plan instructional units and lessons based on current Agricultural Education State Standards and educational philosophy. 

Utilize various instructional strategies and materials through, microteaching the lessons developed in the course. 

Conduct self-assessments of instructional plans and delivery methods and develop improvement strategies and techniques. 

Relevant activities and assignments are as follows; 

Curriculum development—write a semester curriculum including course outline, unit outline and lesson plans which meet current state content standards for vocational agriculture.

Lesson development and presentation—develop and deliver microteaching lessons using classroom management techniques and teaching strategies covered in the course.

Student written self-assessment—evaluate microteaching performance after viewing video of lesson presentation.

Construct a bulletin board that reflects state approved subject matter. 

Primary references for CI 161 include: A textbook on methods of teaching agriculture.The Agricultural Education Magazine, various articles.

8B(k) Business Education. During interrelated activities in program coursework and fieldwork, candidates learn specific teaching strategies that are effectivein supporting them to teach the state-adopted career technical education (CTE) model curriculum standards inbusiness (Grades 7-12) for student mastery. They prepare students to carry out business management functions with an understanding of organizational theory and development, leadership, and motivational concepts. Candidates enable students to solve real-world business problems that include methods of decision making applied to legal and ethical principles, the application of mathematical operations leading to quantitative and qualitative analysis, and the understanding and application of accounting concepts, principles, procedures, and financial analysis. They prepare students to apply key marketing principles and concepts including but not limited to customer service, selling, promotion, and distribution in both domestic and international markets. Candidates teach students to apply principles and procedures related to applications, networking systems, and basic concepts of programming and systems development and the ethical use of information technology in business situations.Candidates instruct students in basic economic principles applicable to microeconomic and macroeconomic theories, and to domestic and international economies. Candidates assist students in a variety of procedures to address individual career development and provide ample opportunities for students to develop their own employment and entrepreneurial skills. Candidates assist students to apply the knowledge of technology, reading, writing, mathematics, speaking, and active listening skills in a variety of business situations. They use a variety of authentic, performance-based assessment strategies to assess students’ skills and abilities.  In CI 161 Methods and Materials in Secondary Teaching-Business, candidates become thoroughly familiar with the California Department of Education Challenge Standards published by the California Department of Education as well as the National Business Standards for Business Education published by the National Business Education Association.  The California Challenge Standards include the field of Business Education and the California Assessment Matrix and Academic Crosswalk Standards.  Students also learn to appreciate the historical aspects of business education – where it has been, where it is, and where it is going.Students become familiar with the different disciplines within business education specifically:

Business Communications
Business Law
Business Math
Business Principles and Management
Career Development
Information Systems/Technology
International Business

Relevant activities/assignments?

Students present five lessons during the semester that include both a written plan and oral presentation.  Written plans must include a cross reference to the California Challenge Standards.

Students survey a business education program at a local area high school.

Students prepare a unit plan that must include a cross reference to the California Challenge Standards.

Students write eight business education articles that are based on current pedagogical theory and practices in business education.

Students research current requirements to become certified to teach business education in a state other than California or prepare a promotional plan that can be used to promote a business education program in a high school.

Students research web sites that pertain to the field of business education and present their findings by utilizing current technology in the classroom.

Students prepare PowerPoint presentations.

Relevant materials (textbook chapter titles, article references, etc.)?National Standards for Business EducationCalifornia Department of Education Challenge StandardsRelevant Journals:Business Education ForumThe Delta Pi Epsilon JournalNABTE ReviewNBEA YearbooksMethods Books:AccountingBasic Business and Economic EducationEconomicsOffice ProceduresTextbooks and ancillary materials –The following is a list of texts on reserve—(most of the texts are teacher’s editions) Web Sites:DDC Publishing (Dictation Disc Company) Glencoe Publishing Publishing South-Western Educational Publishing The Balance Sheet no longer published in hard copy; however, one now accesses this publication on-line.  Access this Web site from  Go to archives (right side of screen down a ways) and select May/June 2000.  Now select the article “Web Links.”  This article provides a multitude of links. California Department of Education Web sites can investigate a multitude of links at this Web site.  One site you should investigate is—under Teaching Learning and Technology select The Challenge then select Challenge Standards (left side of screen) next select Career Preparation (center portion of screen) finally select Business Education Again a multitude of resources:

Select Business Education Resource Consortium.  Then you can select the following options:  Challenge StandardsBusiness Education, Guides to Contents Standards, Assessment Matrix

Also check out these links

Virtual Enterprise Programs

California DECA:  A Marketing Association

Future Business Leaders of America

California Business Education Association

Computer Using Educators

ERIC Clearing House on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education

National Business Education Association

Vocational Education Resources

8B(l) Home Economics During interrelated activities in program coursework and fieldwork, candidates learn specific teaching strategies that are effectivein supporting them to teach the state-adopted career and technology standards for students in home economics (Grades 7-12). They understand how to create home economics career pathways by planning sequences of courses for two complementary, fiscally responsible, inclusive instructional programs, Consumer and Family Studies (CSF) and Home Economics Related Occupations (HERO). They know how to employ Future Homemakers of America (FHA)-HERO as a teaching strategy for developing interpersonal, leadership, citizenship, and career skills. They teach students the essential knowledge and skills for managing their personal, family, and work responsibilities through engaging learning activities, appropriately selected for the eight content areas of CSF. In the HERO program, candidates work closely with industry partners and plan authentic learning experiences to prepare students for entry-level careers or advanced training and education. They plan and supervise student work including group assignments, laboratory work, and on-the-job training. They help students understand underlying theories and complex concepts (e.g., developmental theories in child development and organic chemistry in food science) and solve real-life problems using appropriate problem-solving, creative thinking and critical thinking skills. They plan assessments of student learning, provide frequent feedback, assist students in the achievement of the standards, and use evidence of student learning to improve their program.Not applicable.

8B(m) Industrial Technology. During interrelated activities in program coursework and fieldwork,(See note A)candidates learn specific teaching strategies(see itemsmarked B)that are effectivein supporting them to teach the state-adopted academic content standards(see items marked C)for students in Technology Education, traditional Industrial Arts, and all forms of Computer Education (Grades 7-12). They provide students with an understanding of the nature of technology and of its core technological concepts.(These are basic subject mattercompetencies from undergraduate degree or CSET)They prepare students to understand and use the design process as a problem-solving model. They design and provide problems, exercises, and projects(See items marked D)to students that require the application of core academic knowledge, including(but not limited to) the fields of science, mathematics, economics, social science, and data analysis.(Subject matter competency)Candidates teach students how to work and behave in a safe manner, and they model safety in the laboratory. They prepare students to use all types of tools safely, correctly, and effectively.(Safety is basic subject matter competency, but also reviewed in the methodology course and in student teaching.)Note A. There are three elements that work jointly to help candidates meet the requirements of this standard: the subject matter competency (which overlaps pedagogy in some instances such as safety), the theory of teaching Industrial Technology (covered in the methods course, CI 161 outlined below) and student teaching, where the fieldwork is done. Our program isn’t big enough to have separate fieldwork and practicum labs in the methodology class alone. Therefore, there is considerable overlap and reinforcement between CI 161 methods course and the EHD155B; which are both taught and/or supervised by Industrial Technology staff.

The topics for this course (CI 161) are as follows:

1. TPEs (C)

2. IT Standards and Frameworks (C)

3. Industrial Technology Curriculum
Distinguishing features of IT’s hands on teaching (B)
Definitions of teaching’s jargon (B)
Sources of curriculum guides (B)
Developing your own curriculum (B)
Course goals (B, D)
Developing objectives (B, D)
IT lesson plans (B, D)
Tying lesson plans to state standards (C)

4. Operating an IT ClassIssues for IT classes (D)
Review of casework on IT accident cases (safety)
Perkins funding for capital equipment (B)
Expendables such as paper, motor oil or solder (B)
Methods of tool management (B)
Methods of cleanup management (B)

5. Teaching Industrial TechnologyTeaching a lesson (B, C, D)

6. Recap--A look back at TPE’sIntern Program Delivery Model:The intern pre-service component includes introductory preparation relative to Standard 8B:Pedagogical Preparation for Subject-Specific Content Instruction by Single Subject (SS)Candidates.During the pre-service component, interns get introductory preparation related to Standard 8B by taking CI 159 Curriculum and Instruction which provides an overview of teaching methods used in the various content areas.

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