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Standard 3 Aspect A

Preparation programs ensure that candidates, upon completion, are ready to engage in professional practice, to adapt to a variety of professional settings, and to grow throughout their careers. Effective program practices include: consistent offering of coherent curricula; high-quality quality, diverse clinical experiences; dynamic, mutually beneficial partnerships with stakeholders; and comprehensive and transparent quality assurance processes informed by trustworthy evidence. Each aspect of the program is appropriate to its context and to the credential or degree sought.


The Bilingual Authorization Program standards of the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing were adopted in 2009. As of July 2021, the Commission is seeking feedback on updated standards that are anticipated to be adopted by the end of 2021. Fresno State’s Bilingual Authorization Program (BAP) aligns strongly with the state standards. The Fresno State Bilingual Authorization Program (BAP) spans the undergraduate Liberal Studies Program and the Multiple Subject Credential Program. Aspiring bilingual/dual immersion teachers are encouraged to begin the BAP coursework as undergraduates and complete the methods course while in our credential program. 

The state standards consist of six (6) standards, which are outlined below with a description of how the Fresno State BAP meets each standard. 

CCTC Program

Standard 1: Program Design - Program articulates a clear philosophy and purpose towards the preparation of bilingual/dual immersion teachers. 
The Fresno State Bilingual Authorization Program (BAP) addresses standard 1 via its program philosophy, strong support of candidates, and commitment towards bilingual/dual immersion education. The BAP embraces and celebrates the bi/multilingualism and bi/multiculturalism of prek-12 children and families, pre-service teachers, teacher candidates, and in-service teachers in the Central Valley. We adopt a “grown your own” approach to filling the increasing need in our Valley for future bilingual/dual immersion teachers. The BAP approaches the preparation of future teachers from a world languages/dialects and translanguaging perspective that represents cutting-edge research on emergent bilingual students. For example, we affirm, validate, and centralize culturally and linguistically sustaining pedagogy, such as the translanguaging skills of this community and prepare teacher candidates with this same stance. 

Accompanying the embodiment of this philosophy includes qualified faculty who are recognized leaders, researchers, and educators in bilingual education and teacher preparation, as well as ongoing strong partnerships with local school districts. For example, the district leaders from Madera and Fresno Unified sit on the advisory committee of the BAP and offer feedback and support toward mutual interests that meet both program and district goals. The BAP coordinator is also actively involved in three (3) state-wide committees, the California Department of Education Bilingual Coordinators Network (BCN), the California State University (CSU) Asian Bilingual Teacher Education Program Consortium, and the CSU Council on Bilingual Educator Preparation. During their academic careers, candidates combine rigorous coursework and clinical practice placement in the BAP and credential programs that teaches them about working with culturally and linguistically diverse emergent bilingual children and families, the history and present-day context of bilingual/dual immersion theories and teaching strategies, how to lesson plan with clear learning objectives, concise application of state standards, and various forms of assessments. 

During the 2021-2022 academic year, the coordinator will continue discussions with the Dean, Associate Dean, and department chair regarding expanding a program model that will provide current in-service teachers the opportunity to pursue and complete the bilingual authorization via a post-credential program through Fresno State’s Continuing and Global Education (CGE). 

Standard 2: Assessment of Candidate Competence
The Fresno State Bilingual Authorization Program (BAP) addresses standard 2 via three (3) pathways to assessing the language competency of candidates along four (4) domains: reading, writing, speaking and listening. The first is via a local language assessment administered by the program coordinator and/or faculty. The Spanish local language assessment is new and will be implemented for the first time during the 2021-2022 academic year. Due to having lost the only Hmong BAP faculty, the goal is that the Hmong local language assessment will be created and implemented during the 2022-2023 academic year, during which the program anticipates to welcome a new tenure-track Hmong BAP faculty member. The purpose of the local language assessment is to assist new BAP students in determining their areas of need along the 4 domains. For example, it is common for BAP students to feel confident in their speaking and listening skills, but limited in their reading and writing skills. The local assessment assesses all four domains and is used to inform students about additional courses they may take prior to the BAP courses that will help them further develop and strengthen their skills.  

Based on their credentials and expertise, program faculty are qualified to administer the language assessment. During the 2021-2022 academic year, the Spanish local language assessment will be workshopped during committee meetings to get feedback from all stakeholders, such as program faculty, department chairs, credential coordinators, clinical practice coaches, and district representatives. The workshopping of the assessment will ensure that all program faculty and affiliated committee members will be equipped to support and assist the program coordinator with administering the assessment as needed. 

In addition to the local language assessment, program candidates will also be assessed along the four (4) domains of listening, writing, reading, and speaking in two (2) courses. In the Spanish pathway, the courses are LEE 137, which is an advanced language and literacy course, as well as LEE 136, which is a methods course candidates take while they are in the credential program. Both courses are taught exclusively in Spanish and assignments further assess candidates along the 4 domains. For the Hmong pathway, candidates are assessed in LEE 129, an advanced language and literacy course, as well as LEE 135, the methods course taken while in the credential program. Additionally, all candidates in the credential program are in student teaching and get assigned a coach who uses a rubric to offer formative assessment on their teaching. An area of priority for the BAP is the increased placement of all candidates in bilingual/dual language classrooms. This is a statewide goal. Relatedly, Fresno State’s program seeks to improve the recruitment of Spanish and Hmong bilingual coaches as well to be able to support candidates in these types of classroom settings. These documented language assessments throughout the program ensure that language proficiency is achieved at a high standard for program graduates. 

Standard 3: The Context for Bilingual Education and Bilingualism
The Fresno State Bilingual Authorization Program (BAP) addresses standard 3 primarily via its coursework. The two Spanish pathway courses that prepare candidates with the knowledge of the history, policies, programs, philosophical, theoretical, legal, and research foundations on bilingual/dual immersion education and bilingualism in the U.S. are LEE 137 and CI 135. As evidenced by the course learning outcomes, alignment to BAP state standards, Teacher Performance Expectations (TPEs), and course readings and assignments, candidates in these courses not only learn about the aforementioned topics, but also examine and practice via application and witness firsthand the bilingual and bicultural development of their schoolchildren. Via these courses and supplemental program support structures, candidates also learn the importance of parental/family engagement and view them as resources to help promote the multilingual growth of students. During the 2021-2022 academic year, the Hmong LEE 129 course and a new culture of emphasis course will be developed to align with state standards. 

Standard 4: Bilingual Methodology
The Fresno State Bilingual Authorization Program (BAP) addresses standard 4 primarily via its coursework. The two Spanish pathway courses that prepare candidates with the understanding of the interrelatedness among the four (4) domains of language--speaking, listening, reading, and writing--are LEE 137 and LEE 136. The two Hmong pathway courses that prepare candidates with the understanding of the interrelatedness among the four (4) domains of language--speaking, listening, reading, and writing--are LEE 129 and LEE 135.  These courses teach candidates the language forms and functions. A simultaneous goal in these courses is to prepare candidates to develop and implement lesson plans that adopt appropriate grade level standards, learning objectives, and formal and summative assessments for a bilingual/dual immersion setting. The courses’ emphasis on the most current, research-based instructional models, strategies, curriculum and subsequent assignments allow candidates to practice their application to assess the suitability and appropriateness for their classroom context.

Standard 5: Culture of Emphasis
The Fresno State Bilingual Authorization Program (BAP) addresses standard 4 via coursework. For the Spanish pathway, the culture of emphasis course is C&I 135, and for the Hmong pathway, the course will be developed during the 2021-2022 school year to align with state standards, TPEs and literacy standards. Currently, our Hmong pathway students have several options from departments outside of the Kremen School of Education and Human Development that fulfill this requirement. These courses include Anthropology 123: Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia, or Linguistics 121: Hmong Language, Culture and Identity, or Asian Am 140: Hmong, Laotian, and Cambodian American Experience. 

The culture of emphasis courses provide program candidates with a breath of the historical, sociopolitical, cultural, economic, religious, traditions, roles, statuses, educational experiences, linguistic diversity, socialization, and settlement of Latinx (C&I 135) and AAPI/Southeast Asian communities (new course) in native countries and in the U.S. These courses address the cross and intercultural and multilingual interactions of these communications in the U.S., California, and the local contexts. 

Standard 6: Assessment of Candidate Language Competence
The Fresno State Bilingual Authorization Program (BAP) addresses standard 6 via its coursework. As aforementioned above, candidate language proficiency is evaluated thoroughly along the four (4) domains of reading, writing, speaking and listening in two courses for each pathway that are taught in the target language. The diversity of various assignments and quizzes ensures that the program confirms the proficiency of candidates. The syllabi for these courses have been carefully crafted and/or reviewed to ensure that they reflect the corresponding passing standard for the CSET subtest for the bilingual authorization in the state of California. 

Table to indicate alignment between curricula state and/or national standards: 

CCTC State BAP Standard  Fresno State BAP alignment description
Standard 1: Program Design
  • Commitment to bilingual/dual immersion education based on current research-based scholarship and practice 
  • Qualified bilingual and teacher education faculty
  • Strong partnership with local school districts
  • Clinical practice in bilingual/dual immersion classroom setting
  • Engagement with state and CSU bilingual teacher education committees
Standard 2: Assessment of Candidate Competence
  • Spanish local language assessment will be workshopped among program faculty and affiliated committee members during the 2021-2022 academic year. 
  • All qualified program faculty and affiliated committee members will be equipped to administer assessment to students. 
  • Spanish pathway candidates assessed with local language assessment and in courses LEE 137 and LEE 136. 
  • Hmong pathway candidates will be assessed with local language assessment starting in 2022-2023 academic year and in courses LEE 129 and LEE 135. 
  • All BAP candidates in credential program are placed in student teaching and assigned a coach that uses a rubric to offer formative assessment. 
Standard 3: The Context for Bilingual Education and Bilingualism
  • Spanish pathway courses LEE 137 and C&I 135 prepare candidates with the knowledge of the history, policies, programs, philosophical, theoretical, legal, and research foundations on bilingual/dual immersion education and bilingualism in the U.S
  • Hmong pathway courses LEE 129 is being updated during the 2021-2022 academic year and new culture of emphasis course will be developed
Standard 4: Bilingual Methodology
  • Spanish pathway courses LEE 137 and LEE 136 prepare candidates to develop and implement lesson plans that adopt appropriate grade level standards, learning objectives, and formal and summative assessments for a bilingual/dual immersion setting. 
  • The two Hmong pathway courses LEE 129 and LEE 135 prepare candidates to develop and implement lesson plans that adopt appropriate grade level standards, learning objectives, and formal and summative assessments for a bilingual/dual immersion setting.
Standard 5: Culture of Emphasis
  • For the Spanish pathway, the course that fulfills the culture of emphasis standards is C&I 135. 
  • For the Hmong pathway, the course will be developed during the 2021-2022 academic year. 
Standard 6: Assessment of Candidate Language Competence
  • For the Spanish pathway, candidate language proficiency is evaluated thoroughly along the four (4) domains of reading, writing, speaking and listening in two courses, LEE 137 and LEE 136. 
  • For the Hmong pathway, candidate language proficiency is evaluated thoroughly along the four (4) domains of reading, writing, speaking and listening in two courses, LEE 129 and LEE 135. 

Aspect B →