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Quality Assurance Report 1:

Introduction and Overview of the Program and the Study

Prepared in Response to the 2021 AAQEP Guide to Accreditation

Land Acknowledgement: 
The Fresno State campus sits in the midst of the San Joaquin Valley, a valley rich in the traditions and representation of Native American peoples and cultures. We are grateful to be in the traditional homelands of the Yokuts and Mono peoples, whose diverse tribal communities share stewardship over this land. 

Overview: Fresno State
California State University, Fresno (Fresno State), now a public, comprehensive university, was founded as Fresno Normal School in 1911 with the goal of developing teachers. It  joined the California State University system in 1961 and was granted university status in 1972. Its 1,410-acre campus, including the university farm, is located several miles northeast of downtown Fresno. Fresno is located in California’s Central Valley, an agricultural region that produces many of the fruits, vegetables, nuts, and other food eaten across the globe. The area’s strengths are evident in its world famous national parks, fertile literary landscape (including two former poet laureates of the United States), linguistic diversity, and rich cultural traditions and history. 

With an enrollment of over 24,000 students (89% of whom are from the Central Valley), Fresno State offers 59 undergraduate degree programs, 44 master’s degree programs, three doctoral programs, 12 certificates of advanced study, and various credentials. Our alumni become successful teachers, writers, politicians, entertainers, academics, and even the chancellor of the California State University (CSU) system. Fresno State is one of 23 California State University (CSU) campuses. It is designated as a Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI) and as an Asian American Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institution (AANAPISI) (See Table 1 for demographics). We are proud to support our large population of first-generation students: Fresno State now boasts more than 14,000 undergraduates (nearly 2 out of 3 undergraduates) who are first-generation college students, drawing from a local demographic where less than 21% of the citizens hold college degrees of any kind. 

In recent years, the university has continued to receive recognition on the national level. For multiple years, Fresno State has placed among the top three best public universities in graduation-rate performance nationwide by U.S. News and World Report. In addition, Fresno State placed No. 2 in the category “Least Percent of Grads with Debt” among public national universities.  Fresno State placed 26th out of 389 public and private colleges on Washington Monthly’s 2020 annual list of top national universities based on social mobility, research, and promoting public service. Money magazine ranked Fresno 40th for "best value" universities in the United States and 7th for most transformative college, describing the university as a school “where students beat the odds by doing better than would be expected from their academic and economic backgrounds.” 

Within the CSU system, Fresno State continues to be among the universities graduating the largest cohort of K-12 educators each year. More than 60% of school leaders in our region have roots in Kremen School of Education and Human Development programs.  

Table 1. Fresno State Enrollment, Fall 2016-2020

  Fall 2016
Enrollment
(%)
Fall 2017
Enrollment
(%)
Fall 2018
Enrollment
(%)
Fall 2019
Enrollment
(%)
Fall 2020
Enrollment
(%)
African American 746 (3.1%) 747 (3.0%) 688 (2.8%) 637 (2.6%) 707 (2.8%)
American Indian 88 (0.4%) 101 (0.4%) 105 (0.4%) 98 (0.4%) 106 (0.4%)
Asian 3352 (13.7%) 3401 (13.5%) 3232 (12.9%) 3041 (12.6%) 3090 (12.2%)
Hispanic 11,649 (47.7%) 12,399 (49.3%) 12,796 (51.2%) 12,788 (53.0%) 13,912 (54.9%)
Non-Resident Alien 1517 (6.2%) 1598 (6.3%) 1488 (6.0%) 1293 (5.4%) 1211 (4.8%)
Pacific Islander 40 (0.2%) 43 (0.2%) 44 (0.2%) 43 (0.2%) 48 (0.2%)
White 5157 (21.1%) 4929 (19.6%) 4776 (19.1%) 4557 (18.9%) 4623 (18.2%)
Two or More 677 (2.8%) 714 (2.8%) 695 (2.8%) 655 (2.7%) 681 (2.7%)
Unknown 1177 (4.8%) 1236 (4.9%) 1171 (4.7%) 1027 (4.3%) 963 (3.8%)
           
Total 24,403 (100%) 25,168 (100%) 24,995 (100%) 24,139 (100%) 25,341 (100%)

Educator Preparation Programs at Fresno State
Educator preparation programs are housed in several colleges at the university,  though all programs are affiliated with the Kremen School of Education and Human Development (Kremen). Kremen’s mission is the recruitment and development of ethically informed leaders for classroom teaching, education administration, counseling, and higher education. We foster the candidate dispositions of collaboration, valuing diversity, critical thinking, ethical judgments, reflection, and life-long learning. The Kremen School theme, "Leadership for Diverse Communities," places considerable emphasis on developing educators who can function effectively as leaders in a culturally and linguistically diverse society. With more than 100 languages spoken in the region, our programs offer diverse field experiences, and our students learn strategies to optimize the education of emergent bilinguals while valuing what all students bring to their educational experiences. Additionally, integration of educational technology and performance assessment is essential to all programs. 

In the past seven years since we went through NCATE/CAEP accreditation, there have been a number of leadership changes, both at the university and within Kremen. Just as examples, since 2014, we have had two presidents and four provosts at the university level; within Kremen, we have had three deans and six associate deans. 

This rapidly changing leadership has contributed to a loss of institutional history leading to a  deterioration of infrastructure within Kremen that we have been working to rebuild. With the appointment of Dr. Saúl Jimenez-Sandoval as President of Fresno State in 2021, Dr. Randy Yerrick as the Kremen School of Education and Human Development Dean and Director of Teacher Education in 2020, and Dr. Jenelle Pitt Parker as Associate Dean in 2021, we are confident that we are now on track to creating a sense of stability within the School. In addition, we’ve been able to appoint Dr. Juliet Wahleithner as our first ever Assistant Director of Teacher Education. Her duties encompass our educator preparation work in addition to providing accreditation oversight and leadership. We’ve also hired a full-time lecturer to serve as Coordinator of the Office of Clinical Practice. These key personnel work together to strengthen all aspects of our programs. Lastly, Interim Provost Fu and Special Assistant to the Provost Alam Hasson are in the process of reconceiving the university’s budget process and have been working to understand Kremen’s needs. We are hopeful that this will result in a budget allocation that meets the needs of our complex college. 

First Graduating Class of Fresno Normal SchoolClass of 1912Table 2, Educator Preparation Programs at Fresno State1

Programs housed in Kremen 

Undergraduate Degree B.A. in Liberal Studies
Teaching Credentials
  • Multiple Subject
  • Single Subject
  • Education Specialist
Other Credentials
  • Early Childhood Education
  • Preliminary Administrative Services
  • School Counseling
  • Reading/Literacy Leadership

Graduate Degrees

M.A. in Education
  • Option: Curriculum and Instruction
  • Option: Multilingual Multicultural Education
  • Option: Reading-Language Arts
  • Early Childhood Education
  • Educational Leadership and Administration
  • Higher Ed Administration and Leadership
  • Special Education
  • Teaching (online)
M.S. in Counseling
  • Clinical Rehabilitation and Mental Health Counseling
  • Option: School Counseling
  • Option: Student Affairs and College Counseling Marriage, Family, Child Counseling
Ed.D. Doctoral Degree in Educational Leadership

Programs housed in other colleges

Programs housed in other colleges
  • Agriculture Specialist
  • Speech Language Pathology
  • School Nursing
  • School Psychologist
  • School Social Worker
  • Deaf Education

1 Of these programs, not all are seeking AAQEP accreditation since many hold national accreditation through other accrediting bodies. The School Social Work/CWA PPS program is part of the 60-unit Masters in Social Work program which is nationally accredited by the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE), the School Psychology Ed.S. School Psychology Program is fully approved by the National Association of School Psychologists through 2027 under the CAEP umbrella (NASP), the Speech-Language Pathology holds national accreditation from the American Speech-Language and Hearing Association (ASLHA), and the Deaf/HH Education holds national accreditation through the Council of Education of the Deaf (CED). Figure 2 lists those programs seeking AAQEP accreditation. 

Research Foundation of our Programs
First and foremost, our programs seek to model an asset-based approach (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 1992) to prepare our future educators, recognizing the wealth of resources all students bring with them to the classroom. We utilize culturally sustaining pedagogy (Hammond, 2015; Ladson-Billings, 2009; Paris & Alim, 2014) in order to build on the cultural resources of our candidates. Our goal is to model using asset-based approaches while educating our candidates about how to use these pedagogies within their own contexts.

In order to guarantee that all of our candidates have access to and can participate in meaningful and challenging learning opportunities, we also utilize Universal Design for Learning (CAST, 2021). We recognize that our students need opportunities to demonstrate their developing knowledge and understanding in ways that are appropriate and meaningful to them—and that their students need opportunities to do the same.

Our program also recognizes that education does not happen in a vacuum and that, to truly understand the link between the theories they are learning in their coursework and the application of those theories in practice, candidates benefit from opportunities to apply their new learning in authentic contexts. For this reason, our programs rely heavily on field-based experiences, where candidates are supported by both mentors in the field and university-based coaches. This emphasis on field experience has also led us to develop residency programs in our Basic Credential programs. Our Teacher Residency programs include 1) field-based experiences that emphasize competency-based assessments aligned to district and/or state measures, 2) include theory-to-practice connections in coursework with opportunities for simulations and rehearsals of skills, and 3) authentic and substantive collaborations built on mutual trust with local schools and school districts (National Center for Teacher Residencies, 2015). See further information about our residency programs in the Key Partnerships section. 

At the heart of everything we do is a culture of inquiry (Darling-Hammond, Hammerness, Grossman, Rust, & Shulman, 2005), in which we encourage candidates to collect data on their practice, analyze that data in meaningful ways, and use the findings to inform the work they do. Ultimately, our goal is to prepare educators who are reflective practitioners, committed to improving their practice in order to improve the educational opportunities for all students in our region.

Programs Included in Quality Assurance Report 1
This Quality Assurance Report (QAR) is one of two we are submitting, focusing on programs that are considered to be Basic/Initial Credentials by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. While the Advanced Credentials prepare personnel for work in administrative and support roles, Basic Credential programs prepare teacher candidates seeking entrance into the profession. The programs included within this QAR are the Multiple Subject Credential, the Single Subject Credential, the Education Specialist Credential, the Agriculture Specialist Credential, and the Bilingual Authorization Program Credential. 

Table 3, Program Specification Table for AAQEP Accreditation

Degree or Certificate
granted by the institution
or organization
State Certificate, License, 
Endorsement, or Other Credential (if any)
Number of Candidates currently enrolled (Fall 2021)
Number of Completers
in most recently completed academic year
Multiple Subject Multiple Subject Credential  313 (including BAP) 209
Bilingual Authorization Program (Spanish and Hmong) Bilingual Authorization 62 17
Single Subject Single Subject Teaching Credential  Agriculture 41
Art 10
English 31
Foundational Level General Science 1
French 1
Mathematics 20
Music 19
Physical Ed 9
Science: Biological Science 13
Science: Chemistry 3
Sciences: Physics 3
Social Science 22
Spanish 9
Total: 182
Agriculture 39
Art 7
English 25



Mathematics 20
Music 12
Physical Ed 10
Science: Biological Science 11
Science: Chemistry 4
Sciences: Physics 2
Social Science 22
Spanish 14
Total: 166
Agriculture Specialist Agriculture Specialist Credential 41 41
Education Specialist Special Education Teaching Credential  164 101
TOTALS   661 530

Overview of Basic/Initial Credential Programs

  • The Multiple Subject (MS) program (see full description) prepares students to teach in elementary schools. Prospective students usually major in Liberal Studies as an undergraduate and then enter the MS program as a post-baccalaureate student. Some students gain “subject matter competency” through taking the California Subject Examinations for Teachers (CSET), but many of our students go through our undergraduate program which provides a waiver for the CSET. 
  • The Bilingual Authorization Program (BAP) (see full description) is an add-on credential to the Multiple Subject credential. Prospective students are recruited in both our undergraduate and post-bac programs since students can take some of the additional coursework before entering the credential program. Students can opt to focus on either Spanish or Hmong authorizations as there is a high need for both in our service area. The BAP authorization is also a credential that teachers can pursue after they have completed their credentials. This program has new leadership with focused plans on recruitment and program expansion. The small size of the program in years past means that there isn’t always a lot of data available, especially since students in this program also pursue a MS credential. Still, because of the importance of this program and our goal to increase its size, we’ve decided to isolate it in its own section, using the data that is available. At times, we may refer the reader to the MS program data. Our future plan is to collect disaggregated data to better measure the work we’re doing with what we hope is increasing enrollment in this program. 
  • The Single Subject Program (SS) (see full description) prepares teachers for secondary teaching in specific subject areas. Our university offers SS credentials in the following areas:
    • Agriculture
    • Art
    • Biology
    • Chemistry
    • English
    • French
    • Geological Science
    • Industrial Technology (currently on hiatus)
    • Mathematics
    • Music
    • Physical Education
    • Physics
    • Social Science
    • Spanish

Students establish Subject Matter Competency through coursework and/or the CSET, then enroll in the SS credential program. 

  • The post-baccalaureate (fifth-year) program for Agricultural Education Teacher Preparation is structured so candidates, with a combination of undergraduate and graduate professional education course work, will concurrently fulfill the requirements for the Single Subject, Agriculture and Agriculture Specialist Credentials (see full description).
  • The Special Education Program (SPED or ES) at California State University, Fresno offers the basic Preliminary Education Specialist Credential in grades Kindergarten-age 22 (adult). The Preliminary Education Specialist Credential has two areas of specialization, Mild/Moderate (M/M) and Moderate/Severe (M/S) (see full description).  

All these programs prepare candidates to earn the preliminary credential needed in order to teach in California schools. They also share an assessment tool, the Fresno Assessment of Student Teachers [FAST], a Teaching Performance Assessment (TPA) system designed for exclusive use at California State University, Fresno. Teacher candidates in Single Subject, Ag Specialist, Multiple Subject, BAP and Dual credential programs are assessed using FAST to demonstrate their mastery of the California Teacher Performance Expectations (TPEs). The Ed Specialist program is currently being revised and will likely include FAST assessment as well. FAST ensures that all credential candidates meet the six TPE’s mandated by the State of California through two assessments: 

  • Site Visitation Project - This task assesses the candidate’s ability to perform, document, and reflect upon his/her own instruction. This is a field-based assessment. It assesses the following TPEs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, and takes place in the first semester of the program as part of initial student teaching.
  • Teaching Sample Project - This task assesses the candidates' ability to plan and teach a one- to four -week unit, to assess student learning related to the unit, and to document their teaching and their students’ learning. This is a comprehensive, written assessment. It assesses the following TPEs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, and takes place during the second semester of the program as part of final student teaching.

This assessment is authorized for use by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CCTC). The FAST coordinator is currently one of our coaches who was a school administrator with experience in assessment. She updates faculty when needed, keeps data on student performance, trains those who assess the FAST through norming sessions, and otherwise maintains the quality of assessment data. In addition, one of our professors whose expertise is in educational research creates a psychometric report every two years. We submit all data regularly to the CCTC in order to receive authorization to continue use of the FAST as our teaching performance assessment. 

The second QAR will focus on programs that provide additional training to earn what California calls an Advanced Credential. Although the Ag Specialist credential also fits into this category, it is combined with the preliminary credential at our university, thus we decided to include it in this QAR. These programs are designed around specific California Commission on Teacher Credentialing expectations and standards and undergo regular review by the Commission. 

Key Partnerships with Schools
Kremen is known for its active and long-term partnerships with more than three dozen districts. One of the primary ways we have responded to the calls for improving teacher education is through the establishment of Teacher Residency Programs in districts throughout the region (Fresno, Clovis, Sanger, and Madera, and soon to be added a rural residency initiative), work that has been highlighted in a publication by the Learning Policy Institute and other leading educational agencies. Additionally, the National Center of Teacher Residencies recognized Francisco Barajas as a Resident of the Year in July 2020.

Teacher Residencies:
First and foremost, Kremen’s Teacher Residency Programs are site-accommodating and district-serving teacher education programs that value apprenticeship practices involving mentors (teachers) and coaches (university) in specifically designed events and reflection to foster novice teacher incorporation of culturally responsive practices. Building on the medical residency model, residents learn the underlying theory of effective teaching. They then have the opportunity to put that theory into practice through a year-long, in-school “residency,” in which they practice and hone their skills and knowledge alongside an effective teacher-mentor in “collaboration with university coaches. Kremen resident students spend the full academic year in a district school, developing under the guidance of an experienced mentor teacher and the shared supervision with a university coach. 

Our residencies continue to evolve in their structure, responding to guidelines established by the National Center for Teacher Residencies (NCTR), of which Kremen is a member institution. The NCTR guidelines include providing 1) Targeted recruitment and selection of residents; 2) Rigorous selection and support of teacher mentors; 3) Intensive pre-service preparation within a culturally responsive program focused on the specific needs of teachers; 4) Aligned induction support; and a shared goal of eventual 5) Strategic hiring of graduates. 

Impact of Teacher Residencies:
Over the past seven years the enrollment of candidates in our Teacher Residency programs has grown from 20 residents with one district partner to that of 149 residents with four district partners. Given national trends in teacher attrition, the employment rates of our Teacher Residency graduates are impressive. 

  • Fresno Teacher Residency Program (FRTP): Our most long standing residency program is with Fresno Unified School District. This residency has offered options in Multiple Subject, Dual (Multiple Subject and Education Specialist), and Single Subject with a focus on Math, Science, and industrial technology (especially computer science). Overall, 220 Fresno Teacher Residency Program Graduates over the past seven years are still employed with the district. The program boasts a 94% 1-year retention rate, and an 81% 3-year retention rate compared to 33% nationally (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017Garcia & Weiss, 2019). Additionally seven residents moved into leadership roles in the district. According to the Learning Policy Institute’s Teacher Turnover Calculator, the residency graduates' high retention rates have the potential of saving a school district like Fresno Unified 1.1 million dollars each year. 
  • Sanger Unified Teacher Residency: This residency integrates Universal Design for Learning (UDL), incorporating knowledge about how brains learn to design and build engaging learning environments. Teacher residents are provided the same training as first-year teachers at the school district. From our Sanger Unified Teacher Residency Program, 49 graduates over the past three years are still employed within SUSD as teachers, for an 88% 1-year retention rate and an 87% 3-year retention rate. According to one of the associate superintendents in the district, “The residency model sets our district up to hire well-prepared teachers that embody our goals, beliefs, and culture for years to come.” 
  • Bilingual Authorization Teacher Residency: Our Madera County residency is specifically fostering dual immersion and bilingual education in partnership with our status as an Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI).  As an HSI we hold a particularly special responsibility to foster university programming and student outreach to increase our support to students in districts with high Spanish speaking student populations. Through this residency we can directly impact the student learning in this district by providing pedagogical transformation and community level support. There has been a significant impact on the cultural context at this residency site as demonstrated by the newsletter, meetings agendas, and the media produced from the partnership. The following topics have been collected from these sources which demonstrate the various levels of impact on the learning context and student learning directly:
  • Education Specialist Teacher Residency: Another example of the way in which Kremen is using the Teacher Residency model to respond to the areas of teacher need is our Special Education cohort in Clovis, which also includes a focus on culturally responsive pedagogy. The ES residency at Clovis Unified and Dual Credential Programs (Multiple Subject / ES) residencies were established to support the need for Education Specialists in the local area. As is the case statewide, our region currently has a high rate of special educators serving students with specific learning and behavioral needs under provisional (i.e., temporary) credentials. In order to support both teachers and student teachers in the community, the Special Education residencies help to address this need by offering stipends for tuition in return for a commitment to teaching service. Coursework in the program provides opportunities for candidates to identify issues and problems within the context of their current placements/job sites and seek solutions to those issues/problems within their placement/job sites to improve student learning and outcomes in local schools. 
  • Rural Residency Initiative:  Keeping aligned with our mission to “educate leaders for participation in a diverse society,” we have begun efforts to place students more intentionally into communities of high need or those too often underrepresented by the standard teacher candidate. There exists such a high demand for teachers in the Central Valley that rural communities are often not able to recruit Kremen graduates to accept jobs in outlying, small, agrarian communities. Our largest school districts host hiring events and often get the first pick of graduates, often leaving rural districts to hire temporary or out-of-state candidates who may not know the region or the high commitment to culturally responsive teaching approaches. To that end, Kremen is launching in the 2021-2022 academic year a rural residency initiative serving four partner rural districts. Kremen faculty have collaborated with the Fresno County Office of Education to reach rural and underserved schools to offer virtual and face-to-face instruction, stipends for residents, coaching and mentoring for faculty and students, as well as a promise of a “first look” as a prospective teacher candidate upon completion of the program.  Funded in part by the generous contributions of four districts, this residency initiative is an example of the legacy of Kremen to provide high impact practices through our partnership as well as a clear fulfillment of the commitment to equity Kremen demonstrates throughout the region.
  • In addition to our residency programs, now in its third graduation cohort, the South Valley Integrated Teacher Education Program (ITEP) combines undergraduate Liberal Studies degree requirements with credential program requirements, allowing students to finish both programs in four years, two in a community college and two at Fresno State’s Visalia campus. ITEP is a direct response to local and distant educational leaders working with Kremen leadership to establish pipelines of teachers, counselors and educational leaders to regions where they are needed most. 

Many of these partner relationships were initiated and sustained through the regular meeting of Kremen Deans, Associate Deans, and Chairs strategizing new ways to meet the educational needs of the Valley.  

Overview of Self-Study 
As this is our first AAQEP review, we viewed this self-study as an opportunity to establish a baseline portrait of where our programs currently are in relation to the AAQEP Standards and Aspects. Our rationale behind this was that, by establishing a baseline, we would have a solid understanding of where to begin our cycles of continuous improvement as we continue to move forward in our journey. 

In order to make the self-study process authentic and meaningful for program faculty, we allowed each program to select its own data sources. Faculty members then worked together to identify what success looked like on each measure and then to engage in an analysis of the data. The tables below present the Aspect Evidence Index, which lists the specific data sources used by each program to respond to the aspects included in Standards 1 and 2. Based on the findings from the analyses of those data sources, faculty then worked together to draw conclusions and articulate next steps. These processes are documented within each program’s response to each standard aspect.  We then looked across their findings to select priority areas for the educational unit as a whole.

While program faculty collaborated to engage in the self-study process, within each program, specific faculty members took the lead on constructing responses:

  • The Multiple Subject (MS) program: Dr. Heather Horsley, the program coordinator for the MS program took the lead on this section with the help of program faculty such as Dr. Monica Billen, Dr. Steven Hart, Dr. Jose Lomeli, Melanie Wenrick, Christina Macias, and Suzanne Brandl.
  • The Bilingual Authorization Program (BAP): Dr. Ana Soltero-Lopez, coordinator of the BAP program, took the lead on this part of the QAR. 
  • The Preliminary Education Specialist Credential (ES): Professor Cheryl McDonald, the SPED coordinator, was assisted by program faculty Dr. Michael Mahoney, Dr. Bill Garnett, Dr. Kimberly Coy, Dr. Kristina Rios, and Dr. Christina Bosch on the documentation for this program. 
  • The Single Subject Program (SS): Dr. Imelda Basurto, the SS Program Coordinator, was assisted by program faculty Dr. Earl Aguilera, Dr. David Low, Dr. Rohit Mehta, Dr. Kat Biacindo, and Dr. Bill Garnett. 
  • Agriculture Specialist Credential (AS): Dr. Rosco Vaughn, the coordinator of the Agriculture Education program, and Dr. Steve Rocca worked together on this part of QAR #1. 

For each Standard, we present an introduction that details key information about how the responses to the standard were constructed, including data sources used. We then present each program’s response to each aspect of the standard. At the end of each Standard, we present a conclusion and next steps that synthesize the findings from across the programs, highlighting the strengths and areas for growth. Additionally, we include the identified priority areas for each program in response to the standard, along with the specific steps the program will take to address those priority areas.

We believe it is important to acknowledge the timeline in which we undertook this self-study. Fresno State joined AAQEP in Winter 2020, just prior to the onset of the global pandemic. At the time, Kremen was also undergoing a significant leadership change. The former dean, who had served in the position on an interim basis since Fall 2018 and who had led the initiative to transition to work with AAQEP,  announced she had accepted a position at another institution. Additionally, Dr. Kathleen Godfrey, a professor from the English department, was in her first of two years as the Interim Associate Dean. Though campus was shut down and meetings were now held virtually, discussions did begin about what would be required for AAQEP accreditation. However, the first set of three major deadlines for accreditation by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (Preconditions, Program Standards Review, and Common Standards Review) was looming, and completing that work became the focus. 

In Fall 2020, with Dean Randy Yerrick now leading Kremen, the decision to pursue AAQEP accreditation became finalized. The work on the AAQEP Proposal began, but programs continued to focus on preparing their documentation for the CCTC Program Standards Review submission (CCTC Program Review responses). When that work was completed, we then began preparing responses to the CCTC Common Standards, which were due March 1, 2021. It was at that point that we could truly begin to embark on our AAQEP journey, at a time when our faculty were already fatigued after a year like no other. 

Overall, the process of engaging in this self-study has yielded important information for our individual programs and our educational unit as a whole, allowing us to highlight our areas of strength as well as the opportunity to look at data in new ways to uncover areas to improve so that we can better fulfill our mission of preparing educational leaders who will serve the students of our region.

Table 4
Aspect-Evidence Index to the Quality Assurance Report 

Description and Program of Study for Each Program

Multiple Subject Credential Program

The Multiple Subject (MS) Teaching Credential prepares teacher candidates to teach in K-8 classrooms. It is a three semester program of forty-four units: thirty-three units in teacher preparation coursework and eleven units of supervised clinical practice [student teaching]. The Multiple Subject Credential Program is based on a clearly stated rationale that requires candidates to complete foundation classes and content-specific methods coursework while concurrently practicing the application of these concepts in field placement settings. Candidates are expected to apply the theoretical and scholarly concepts, knowledge, and teaching skills in the planning and implementation of effective and appropriate lessons and units of study. The program provides extensive opportunities for candidates to learn to teach using the state adopted academic content standards with all students. Fieldwork placements are made in diverse settings including many high need, urban schools. The CTC requires approved programs to embed instruction in working with English learners, authorizing MS Credential holders to “provide instruction for English language development and specially designed academic instruction in English within the subject area and grade level authorization.” 

Prospective candidates establish Subject Matter Competency by taking an approved program of study like Fresno State’s Liberal Studies major or through passing the CSET. Recent legislation authorizes additional ways to establish Subject Matter Competency; in the coming months we expect to receive more guidance about this legislation from the CTC. 

Students can earn a Multiple Subject credential through evening cohorts, the Teacher Internship Program or our nationally recognized Teacher Residency Programs. Some of our students also pursue the add on credential for Bilingual Authorization or pursue a Dual credential that combines the MS credential with Special Education. 

In addition to the traditional pathway of earning the credential as a post-bac credential student, we also offer the South Valley Integrated Teacher Education Program (ITEP) which allows students to take General Education coursework at one of our South Valley community colleges (the College of the Sequoias, Porterville College, or West Hills Community College Lemoore), Fresno State coursework at our Visalia campus (located at the College of the Sequoias), and student teach in districts in the South Valley. 

Pathways for Multiple Subject Credentials (see discussion of residency programs in “Key Partnerships” section of this introduction)

Pathway Location Delivery Model
Traditional Student Teaching Main Campus Hybrid
Traditional Student Teaching: Residency Sanger Unified School District Partnership: Multiple Subject Credential Hybrid
Traditional Student Teaching: Residency Clovis Unified School District Residency Partnership: Dual Multiple Subject and Education Specialist Mild/Moderate Credentials Hybrid
Traditional Student Teaching: Residency Clovis Unified School District Partnership: Multiple Subject with an emphasis in Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy Hybrid
Traditional Student Teaching: Residency Fresno Unified School District Residency Partnership: Dual Multiple Subject and Education Specialist Mild/Moderate Credentials with or without Bilingual Authorization Hybrid
Traditional Student Teaching: Residency Fresno Unified School District Residency Partnership: Multiple Subject with Bilingual Authorization in Spanish or Hmong Hybrid
Traditional Student Teaching: Residency Madera Unified School District Residency Partnership: Multiple Subject Credential with Bilingual Authorization in Spanish Hybrid
Traditional Student Teaching: Residency Visalia Unified School District South Valley Undergraduate Integrated Teacher Education Program Hybrid
Internship Main Campus (and schools all over our service area) Hybrid

The program of study for the Multiple Subject Credential Program follows:

Phase 1

Phase 3

ITEP Program: https://fresnostate.edu/kremen/liberal-studies/itep.html

Total Units: 45 units 

The internship option requires the same coursework, however, students are able to accept full-time positions and complete their clinical practice hours as a teacher. 

Bilingual Authorization Program

In California, Latinx students comprise 54.9% and Asian/Pacific Islander/Southeast Asian students comprise 12.1% of public K-12 enrollment. During the 2019-2020 academic year, the state reported that 18.63% of California public school students were emergent bilingual students. Moreover, about 75 languages other than English are collected by the state department of education. The top language is Spanish, with 81.44% of students speaking this language while Hmong makes the top 20. In the Fresno Unified School District, the third largest school district in the state and located in the Central Valley of California, Hmong speakers represent 12.03% of K-12 students (California School Dashboard).

Major changes have occurred in bilingual education in the state of California—notably the elimination of English-only laws (1998 Proposition 227) and reinstatement of bilingual education (2016 proposition 58). Proposition 58 reversed the eighteen (18) years of English-only instruction in public K-12 schools. Thus, since 2016, the number of dual immersion programs has grown considerably and presently maintains steady expansion. California State University, Fresno (Fresno State) is in a position to directly address and support the language needs of  emergent bilingual children and families in the Central Valley via the Bilingual Authorization Program (BAP). 

In 2009, the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing approved the Fresno State Bilingual Authorization Program in Spanish and Hmong. The program spans the Liberal Studies Program and continues into the Multiple Subject Credential Program. Since its inception, the BAP had not undergone any substantial changes until recently. Program data, faculty observations, and student responses identified several challenges, such as 1) lack of advertisement, 2) lack of recruitment, 3) lack of communication about program expectations, 4) inaccessibility to coursework, and 5) repetition in coursework. Under the leadership of a new program coordinator, careful consideration of these challenges led to the successful redesign and implementation of new practices that have drastically improved program recruitment efforts and student interest. In Fall 2020, the Spanish BAP pathway underwent a successful redesign that reduced it from five (5) courses to three (3) courses, making this pathway accessible to interested students and strengthening its alignment to California state bilingual standards, literacy standards, and teacher performance expectations (TPEs). The Hmong BAP pathway will also be undergoing a redesign during the 2021-2022 academic year that will also reduce the program from five (5) courses to three (3) courses that will improve its alignment to the aforementioned state standards (please see table of coursework below). In addition, we are currently advertising to hire a new assistant professor in the area of BAP with a Hmong emphasis. 

Spanish BAP pathway

Course Number  Course Name  Units 
CI 135 Sociopolitical and cultural context of Latina/o/x Education 3
*LEE 136 Teaching content in Spanish (taught in Spanish) 3
LEE 137 Spanish language and literacy (taught in Spanish)  3

*Course must be taken in credential program 

Forthcoming Hmong BAP pathway 

Course Number  Course Name  Units 
LEE 128 (placeholder) Sociopolitical and cultural context of AAPI/Southeast Asian Education 3
LEE 129 Hmong language and literacy (taught in Hmong) 3
*LEE 135  Teaching content in Hmong (taught in Hmong) 3

*Course must be taken in credential program 

Both bilingual authorization pathways encourage students to take LEE 137 and C&I 135 (Spanish pathway) or LEE 128 and LEE 129 (Hmong pathway) as undergraduates. The LEE 135 and LEE 136 courses are pedagogy courses that correspond to their student teaching practicum courses (EHD 170 and 178) as students in the multiple subject program. Ideally, BAP candidates are placed in a bilingual/dual immersion classroom and are teaching in the target language as part of their practicum. In each pathway, two (2) of the courses are taught in the target language, which assess candidate’s language proficiency on four (4) domains, speaking, writing, listening, and reading. The BAP’s purposeful and interrelated coursework and field experiences provides fundamental language, cultural, pedagogical, and instructional skills that effectively prepare bilingual teacher candidates to meet the needs of emergent bilingual students and the families they serve in TK-8th grade bilingual/dual immersion programs.

Single Subject

The California Single Subject Teaching program prepares teacher candidates to teach in secondary classrooms in a specific content area. Fresno State offers programs in the following subject areas:

  • Agriculture
  • Art
  • Biology
  • Chemistry
  • English
  • French
  • Geological Science
  • Industrial Technology (currently on hiatus)
  • Mathematics
  • Music
  • Physical Education
  • Physics
  • Social Science
  • Spanish 

Prospective teacher candidates must demonstrate Subject Matter Competency by either taking an undergraduate course of study that is approved by the CTC or by passing the California Subject Examination for Teachers (CSET) in the discipline they wish to teach. Recent legislation in California has opened up pathways to SMC which will influence our admission requirements in the next few months. Teacher candidates then take a course of study designed to fulfill the CTC’s requirements for Single Subject teacher preparation as demonstrated on this course matrix

The Single Subject Credential Program is a 34 unit  program consisting of 19 units of course work and 15 units of clinical practice. Most students complete the program in two semesters:

Semester 1
CI 151 Social Context of Teaching and Learning 3 units
CI 152 Adolescent Learning and Development 3 units
LEE 157 Teaching English Learners in Secondary Classrooms 3 units
CI 161 Teaching Methods and Materials  3 units
EHD 155A Student Teaching in Secondary Schools (initial phase) 4 units
EHD 154A Initial Student Teaching Seminar 1 units
Semester 2
LEE 156 Content Area Literacy in the Secondary Classroom 3 units
SPED 158 Differentiated Instruction in Secondary Settings 3 units
EHD 155B Student Teaching in Secondary Schools (Final) 10 units
EHD 154B Final Student Teaching Seminar 1 units

Candidates immediately apply the knowledge and skills gained in these courses in their two semesters of clinical practice work, one part-time and one full-time. During their two fieldwork experiences, candidates can teach at two grade levels or in two subject areas. Both a traditional and an internship program are offered. Approximately 80% of the candidates are enrolled in the traditional program. In either case, candidates work in ethnically diverse settings. Most candidates teach many students from low-income backgrounds, whether they do their fieldwork in an urban or rural setting.

Some of our teacher candidates with more experience in the classroom pursue an internship which allows them to accept a full-time position while they complete the Single Subject credential program. The Internship and Single Subject program coursework/field experience differ only in the clinical practice experience. Whereas the final student teaching experience is usually completed in one semester, interns take two semesters to complete their clinical practice requirements, but do so as a paid teacher. Both programs include support and supervision by a university coach, however, the intern teacher will have an on-site cooperating teacher rather than a mentor/master teacher.

Candidates in our Single Subject program work toward a Preliminary Single Subject Credential. Once all credential program requirements are completed, the candidate applies to the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CCTC) for a preliminary single subject credential. The preliminary single subject credential authorizes candidates to teach a specified subject in a departmentalized classroom for a maximum period of five years.

Agriculture Specialist 

As one of the largest Agriculture Specialist credential programs in the state, for the second year in a row, Fresno State has graduated more candidates for the Ag Specialist credential than any other university in California, averaging 28 program graduates per year. With the university situated in the heart of California’s agriculture center, this means that we are able to provide students in the region with greater access to teachers with expertise in agriculture education.  Moreover, in 2021, three students were selected as National Teach Ag Ambassadors for the National Association of Agricultural Educators (NAAE) National Teach Ag Campaign; these students will represent the Central Valley in this national organization, furthering their educational reach through networking, advocacy, and professional development. 

The Agriculture Specialist Credential Program at Fresno State is a five-year pathway that includes both an undergraduate major and the credential program. First, students must obtain the Bachelor of Science Degree with a major in Agricultural Education. To earn the degree, students complete 39 semester units of agriculture core subject matter. In addition, they must also complete a specialization area comprised of 15 semester units from one of the following areas: agricultural business, animal sciences, plant sciences, or mechanized agriculture. This major is designed to equip students for careers as agricultural communication specialists or secondary agriculture teachers. 

Once students complete the undergraduate program (or establish Subject Matter Competency), they can choose to pursue a stand alone Agriculture Education Single Subject Credential or add the Ag Specialist program, an Advanced Credential,  to their Single Subject preparation. According to the CCTC, the Ag Specialist credential “Authorizes the holder to teach agriculture in preschool, grades K–12 inclusive, and in classes organized primarily for adults. This credential authorizes the holder to develop and coordinate curriculum, develop programs, and deliver staff development for agriculture education programs coordinated by school districts or county offices of education.” 

This credential requires completion of the Single Subject Credential Program Requirements and an approved fifth-year program of 30 postgraduate units including AGED 135, AGED 150, AGED 187, AGED 189; AGRI 280, AGRI 281 and EHD 155B; CI 161 (these last two are part of the SS Credential Program requirements). 

Education Specialist

According to a recent West Ed study, California Special Education Funding System: A Descriptive Analysis of Special Education Funding in California (2020), California has over 725,000 students in need of special education services. This represents almost 12% of K-12 students requiring federal, state, and district funding in the amount of about $12 billion. According to a 2019 Fresno Unified Fact Sheet (one of the largest districts in our service area), 9,157 (12%) of the district’s students received special education services. 

Our Education Specialist programs prepare candidates to teach students with disabilities in diverse classrooms and inclusive settings. The program is focused on preparing highly qualified educators to meet the diverse needs of the students in the Central Valley. Through a program of study infused with high leverage practices; ethical, professional, and culturally sustaining practices; and Universal Design for Learning, our graduates are prepared to design and implement research-based instruction and supports that build on student strengths and respond to student academic, social, emotional, and identified needs. 

We offer several options for students interested in this credential (links provide access to the program of study/advising sheets for each option):

Over the coming year, we will be submitting a Transition Plan to the CCTC, updating our program to adhere to new state standards. This work is in process and is not yet reflected in our program design (which will require moving through department, school and university approval processes). 

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