Standard 1 Aspect A
Standard 1. Evidence shows that by the time of the program completion, candidates exhibit knowledge, skills, and abilities of professional educators appropriate to their target credential or degree, including: Content, pedagogical, and/or professional knowledge relevant to the credential or degree sought.
Data Sources & Analysis:
DATA Sources to be introduced:
- Pre Knowledge Based Questionnaire (KBQ)
- Post Knowledge Based Questionnaire (Post KBQ)
- Candidate GPA at Completion of Program (GPA)
- Preceptor Checklist of Skills and Competencies (Form P106/P206)
- Evaluation of Student Skills (Form P105/205)
- California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Survey (CCTC post survey)
- Prerequisites to Program Admission
- California Registered Nurse (RN) licensure
- California School Audiometrist Certification
- Community Health Nursing coursework or Public Health Nurse Certification
- GPA 3.00 minimum
- Current Employment as School Nurse
Program Start and Completion of Knowledge Based Questionnaire
The first measure is a student self-rated questionnaire that measures the knowledge candidates have at program entrance and after program completion. This gives the School Nurse Services Credential (SNSC) Program faculty an idea of the candidates’ knowledge base at entry and areas needing additional assistance to meet the SN program competencies. Following the questionnaire, students develop individual goals and objectives based on their learning needs.
The purpose of using the KBQ is the following:
- To determine the knowledge base of candidates entering the program allowing participants to design their program experience around areas of the greatest lack of knowledge.
- To determine if program participants showed significant gains in their knowledge level at completion of the program.
- To determine areas where program content needs to be strengthened.
- Used as a basis for candidate individualized Professional Goals and Objectives.
- To determine if the program addressed the current needs of school nurse professionals.
Analysis and Interpretation:
Participants, who have on average at least two years of school nursing (SN) experience entering the program, rate their level of knowledge of school nurse practice before entry and after program completion using a Likert-type scale of 5 (very knowledgeable) to 1 (no knowledge). Scores on the KBQ allow the students to see areas where they lack knowledge to help with designing their personal Learning goals and Objectives for the programs’ practicums. Low scores in a particular area help practicum faculty adjust their focus to meet the needs of the students entering the program. For example, during the 2019-2020 school year, a random review of 15 program candidate KBQ’s determined the average Pre-Knowledge Based Questionnaire score was 39.1 out of a total of 75 possible points at entry (52%), and the Post-Knowledge Based Questionnaire average score at the program end was 70 (93%). Candidates entered with high knowledge scores in Child Abuse, Immunization compliance, and Children with Special Needs; but stated they had little knowledge of Nursing Theory, School Refusal/Absenteeism, Drug Exposed Infants, and Neurological Testing. Upon leaving the program, candidates demonstrated significant growth in all areas showing the School Nurse Credential Program content was effective in meeting the SNSC Program goals and objectives.
The KBQ form is used by students for annual development and assessment of learning goals and objectives. The information is also used to assess areas where students need additional education. Coordinators use the Post KBQ data to review areas candidates have expressed wanting more information. KBQ data is available from 2014 to 2021, however, the data is not digitized and is calibrated by hand. We are exploring methods to better analyze and utilize the KBQ results in the future. In the chart below, 1-30 is the knowledge or skill area of the candidate, and 0-80 is the candidate's self-rating of that knowledge.
Candidate GPA at Completion of Course/Program
Candidates in the SNSC Program take a total of nine courses focusing on professional, pedagogical, and content knowledge necessary to successfully practice as Credentialed School Nurses according to the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Standards of School Nursing. Three prerequisite courses are completed from accredited universities before program admission and six core School Nurse Services Credential courses are offered at Fresno State. Mean grades in all courses range from 3.71 to 4.00 with an average mean of 3.88 indicating candidates acquired content, pedagogical, and/or professional knowledge relevant to professional school nursing.
Candidate Mean GPA in CSUF School Nurse Services Credential Courses 2017-2020
|Mean GPA||2017-18||2018-19||2019-20||Combined GPA|
SN Seminar I Elementary
SN Seminar II Secondary
SN Practicum II Secondary
Midterm and Final Semester Fieldwork Evaluation, Preceptor Checklist of Skills and
Competencies (P106/206), Evaluation of Student Performance (P105/205)
The third measure is the Fall semester and Spring semester Fieldwork Evaluation (Preceptor Evaluation of Student Performance (P105/205) used by preceptors to evaluate candidates in their field work knowledge and skill at two points. Preceptors (experienced, credentialed school nurses who serve as a mentor and field supervisor) rate a candidate for their overall performance and recommend a candidate for credentialing on a 5-point Likert scale.
Rational for Using:
The Preceptor Evaluation provides extensive opportunities for candidates to demonstrate their knowledge, skills and abilities with respect to the school nurse competencies. Candidate and Preceptor verify the areas they cover during the semester. In the final evaluation of candidate performance key questions include:
- “Taking all activities into consideration, rate the total performance of this student.”
- “Would you recommend this student for credentialing? Yes/No
Elements of Data Source:
Preceptor Checklist of Skills and Competencies are divided into three sections:
The following two sections have a comprehensive list of skills and competencies that must be observed and checked off by the candidate’s preceptor as “Met” or “Unmet.”
Note: Because of the similarity in the NURS 186 and NURS 187 evaluation tools, though specific to each educational level for each practicum, they are discussed and presented together.
School Nurse Competencies 1: Providing Health and Wellness Services (Primary Intervention).
Examples of expected candidate competencies in this category for both N186 & N187;
- “Organizes and correctly performs state mandated screening, i.e., vision, hearing, scoliosis.”
- “Correctly carries out the nursing process in problem solving matters related to program; and in health assessment of clients, which includes history taking, growth & development, and nutritional status.”
School Nurse Competencies 2: Providing Direct Client Care (Secondary & Tertiary Intervention).
Examples of expected candidate competencies in this category;
- “Demonstrates competence in providing appropriate healthcare services to students coming to the health office and others in the school setting.”
- “Demonstrates competence in assessment and management of acute injuries and other medical emergencies; and provides appropriate emergency first aid.”)
School Nurse Competencies 3: Professional Management Skills (P106/206)
Competence in this area is determined by a 5-point Likert Scale. The same ten questions are used each practicum course, though they relate specifically to elementary school nursing in N186 and secondary school nursing for N187. See the following data for School Nurse competencies.
Preceptor Checklist of Skills and Competencies (P106/P206)
Data Demonstrating successful candidate performance:
|PRECEPTOR EVALUATION Of STUDENT SKILLS||n=47
|Was the preceptor satisfied that the candidate demonstrated that he/she was capable of satisfactorily meeting required competencies and skills?||F2017
|EXCELLENT||(42) 89%||(44) 94%||(41) 91%||(49) 93%||(40) 83%||(45) 92%|
|VERY GOOD||(5) 11%||(3) 6%||(4) 4%||(3) 6%||(8) 17%||(4) 8%|
|Would you recommend this student for a clear credential?||yes||yes||yes||yes||yes||yes|
|STUDENTS RECOMMENDED FOR CREDENTIALING.||47
Summary of Findings
In Nursing 186 and Nursing 187 Practicum Courses, Preceptors rated candidate clinical performance as Excellent or Very Good 100% of the time. No candidates were rated Good, Fair, or Poor in any category.
Average score of Professional Management Skills from 2017-2020 is 4.90.
From 2012 to 2020 preceptors recommended 100% of their candidates for a Clear Credential.
Analysis and Interpretation:
Data demonstrates that the School Nurse Credential Program is a successful program and candidates at the time of program completion exhibit the knowledge, skills, and abilities relevant to the School Nurse Credential. In the past three years 100% of candidates completing the program met all requirements for the School Nurse Services Credential and were recommended for credentialing.
In addition, data demonstrates an increase in performance ratings from Fall (Elementary) to Spring (Secondary) semesters, showing knowledge, growth, and performance effectiveness from Fall 2017 to Spring 2020.
Mean scores suggest the program has maintained a high success standard at 4.90 out of 5.00 for the last 3 years.
CCTC Survey of Program Effectiveness
The fourth data source is a survey from the California Commission on Teaching Credentialing provided to candidates 1-2 years after they have completed the program in 2018 and 2019.
Perspective: Program Completers
Rational for using:
The purpose of this survey is to see if candidates felt the SNSC Program provided them with the knowledge and skills needed to be effective in their professional roles.
Out of 50 candidates in 2019, 38 responded to the survey. In 2020, 51 candidates responded to the CCTC Survey out of 51.
|CCTC Survey of Program Effectiveness
% of responses rating the SN program (5) Strongly Agree or (4) Agree
|“My coursework provided me with the knowledge and skills to be effective.
Excellent or Agree %
|“My coursework was relevant to my profession.” Excellent or Agree %||92%||98%|
|“My coursework was rigorous and challenging.” Excellent or Agree %||89%||98%|
|“I would recommend this program to others.”
Excellent or Agree %
|“I would recommend this program to others.”
Excellent or Agree %
Although only two years of data is available from the CCTC, responses were overall positive about the School Nurse Services Credential program and its overall effectiveness in preparing candidates for a professional role as a school nurse. Out of 89 total respondents, four graduates stated they strongly disagreed in most categories.
Analysis of Standard 1a Findings
After reviewing the findings of our School Nurse Services Credential program we believe there is solid evidence obtained by multi-method, multi-source approaches to support our belief the SNSC program is successful in preparing competent, caring, and effective school nurses who have the content, pedagogical, and/or professional knowledge relevant to the credential.