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Standard 3: Aspect D

Preparation programs ensure that candidates, upon completion, are ready to engage in professional practice, to adapt to a variety of professional settings, and to grow throughout their careers. Effective program practices include: consistent offering of coherent curricula; high-quality quality, diverse clinical experiences; dynamic, mutually beneficial partnerships with stakeholders; and comprehensive and transparent quality assurance processes informed by trustworthy evidence. Each aspect of the program is appropriate to its context and to the credential or degree sought.


Description of recruitment and admissions process: (see Appendix A)

How are shortages identified in region/state? 
Shortages in certificated general elementary education teaching positions are identified by leadership at local districts and by researchers at state levels. At the local level, School Principals identify the needs at their school sites and request to hire qualified Multiple Subject Credential Program Completers who have earned their preliminary credential for vacant general education teaching positions. Using their funding formula, facilities reports, community population growth projections, and staffing projections, districts identify their projected needs for elementary school teachers. Based on these data, they recruit for high-need hiring areas and they offer positions to the most qualified personnel that can be found. 

Additionally, federal and state grant funding opportunities have also encouraged five of our local partners to address teacher shortages and teacher retention issues through the development of teacher residency models. These are service-based grants in that a $12,000-$13,000 stipend is offered in return for a commitment of 3 years of service fulfilling a high needs hiring area position (e.g., Special Education, Bilingual-Dual Language Immersion, Middle School Math and Science, and rural elementary teaching positions). At the state level, data is collected twice yearly on the numbers of TK-12 students enrolled in general education classrooms.The data dashboards also provide information about the number and type of permits and credentials issued in the prior academic years. 

How are candidates recruited to meet these shortages?
Applicants are actively recruited for fall, spring, and summer program semester starts. The summer sessions are reserved for Residency Programs and the Integrated Teacher Education Program (ITEP). The Program Coordinator, Academic Advisors, Fresno State Recruitment Counselors, Community College Counselors, and faculty instructors who teach courses in Liberal Studies and Child and Family Sciences recruit undergraduate students into the Multiple Subject Credential Program. The Program Coordinator collaborates with faculty in departments across campus and with program coordinators within the community colleges to host information sessions about the program and admissions requirements (e.g., Kremen Information Panel (KIP) in the Department of Child and Family Sciences; Reedley College Pathway Hour. See Appendix A for further details). In our program prerequisite courses, EHD 50 Introduction to Teaching and CI 100 Educational Applications of Technology, instructors actively recruit the undergraduate students enrolled in the course. The three academic advisors in the Kremen Advising Center offered information and advising to prospective candidates and open information sessions in the 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 academic years to provide information and recruit credential candidates for all credential programs. There is also an informational video on the Kremen website and follow up walk-in sessions are offered. The Program Coordinator also presents information and participates in partner districts’ grow your own teacher pipeline and job fair events whenever possible.   

The Coordinator of Teacher Residency Partnerships and Professors in Residence hold two information sessions per semester to collaboratively recruit for all the residency programs offered as a pathway to teaching at Fresno State. Our district partners join us for these events as well. In the past random email blasts would be sent to undergraduate students promoting 4 different residency opportunities. We learned that this was ineffective because the undergraduate students would assume that they already saw the announcement or attended the event without realizing that the information pertained to a different district partner with a different set of opportunities. In order to streamline communication, the Coordinator of Teacher Residency Partnerships worked with Professors-in-Residence to develop a streamlined recruitment process. The Coordinator of Teacher Residency Partnerships also worked with the Kremen Communications Director to develop a professionally designed email invitation that also allows us to gather metrics and feedback from the recipients. This process has improved communications with prospective applicants and increased interest and applications to the teacher residency programs as all cohorts filled up early in the spring 2021 admissions cycle. 

The Program Coordinator also actively seeks out partnerships with the leadership of initiatives and groups that are focused on disrupting the educator-diversity gap through the recruitment and retention of Indigenous, Black, Racialized people who have been historically excluded from having access to the profession. Three prominent examples include: 

  1. Engaging with the CSU Learning Lab to Close the Diversity Gap where five CSU teacher preparation programs worked to collectively develop systems to recruit and support future Black, Indigenous, POC into the field;
  2. Partnering with our local district partners to commit to the California Teacher Residency Lab where a network of 65 teacher residency programs in California have been receiving professional learning and coaching focused on recruiting, retaining, and supporting educators of color. 
  3. Collaborating with the Enseñamos en el Valle Central which is an initiative that is cultivating pathways for future bilingual and Latina/o/x teachers beginning in high school and continuing through community college.  

Description of selection process:
The California Commission on Teacher Credentialing requires the following for admission to the Preliminary Education Specialist Credential program:

1. Basic Skills. Applicants must demonstrate proficiency in reading, writing, and math through one of these options: 

a. Passage of the California Basic Educational Skills Test (CBEST)
b. By documentation of earning ‘B’ grades or better in specific college courses
c. By fulfilling the requirement through a combination of the CBEST and coursework
d. By fulfilling the requirement through alternative examinations:

    • An official score report that verifies passing the College Board SAT Reading or Verbal (500) and SAT Mathematics (550) on examinations taken before March 2016.
    • An official score report that verifies passing the College Board SAT Reading and Writing (560) and SAT Mathematics (570) on examinations taken after March 2016.
    • An official score report that verifies passing the ACT English (22) and ACT Mathematics (23)
    • Verification of passing the California Subject Examination for Teachers (CSET): Writing Skills exam and CSET: Multiple Subject exam
    • Verification of a score of 3 or higher on the AP English Language and Composition or the AP English Literature and Composition Exam and a score of 3 or higher on the AP Calculus or Statistics Exam

2. Subject Matter Competency. The sponsor of an education specialist teacher preparation program assesses each candidate’s standing in relation to required subject matter preparation during the admissions process. The program admits only those candidates who meet one of the following criteria. Reference: Education Code Sections 44227(a)

  • The candidate provides evidence of having passed the appropriate subject matter examination(s). 
  • The candidate provides evidence of having attempted the appropriate subject matter examinations(s). 
  • The candidate provides evidence of registration for the next scheduled examination. 
  • The candidate provides evidence of having completed an appropriate Commission approved subject matter preparation program.
  • The candidate provides evidence of continuous progress toward meeting the subject matter requirement. 
  • The candidate provides evidence of enrollment in an organized subject matter examination preparation program. 

3. Certificate of Clearance. Applicants pass an electronic fingerprinting process background check and obtain a valid Certificate of Clearance through the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC).

4. Pre-Program Field Experience. The CTC requires that applicants spend at least 45 hours in a K-12 public school general and special education classrooms. The purpose of the field experience is to provide the applicant with the opportunity to engage with the population they are seeking to teach in order to have a clear assessment of their interest in the teaching profession and their potential in the field. 

5. TB Risk Assessment.

In addition to the CTC requirements for admission, the university further requires all of the following for admission to the Education Specialist Program:

6. Application for admission to the university

7. Application for admission to the program which includes the above CTC requirements and the following:

  • Two letters of recommendation addressing the applicant's readiness to enter a credential program.
  • A written personal narrative to assess the applicant’s proficiency in writing and an oral  admission interview with program faculty to assess applicant’s proficiency in speaking skills, personality and character traits that satisfy the standards of the teaching profession. The Multiple Subject Credential Program Interviewers also have a set of ‘Look Fors’ to consider that align with our program vision and goals: 
    • Uses Asset Based Language, Demonstrates Asset Based Thinking
      • Has some understanding of the community they might work in.
      • Has some understanding of the larger cultural/institutional structures that create inequities.
      • Lived experience [personal background in relation to racism, poverty, attending urban/rural schools AND/OR the awareness of their positionality and are committed to issues of diversity, equity, and inclusion -antiracism is a plus (they are humble in their own lived experiences that may or may not be the same others).
  • Desire to teach all students
    • Exhibits a belief that all students, regardless of circumstances, can learn
    • Conveys a sense of personal responsibility for student learning and growth
    • Willingness to go above and beyond; to see patterns and links among seemingly unrelated things 
    • Recognizes relationship building as a key piece of teaching
    • Has some teaching experience or pre-program field experience
    • Expresses long term commitment to teaching  
  • Coachable and Collaborative
    • Identifies great value in working with others; sees value in collaboration 
    • Recognizes they are not ready to teach right now.  Has worked through challenges in the past by receiving guidance. Ability to build relationships. Ability to handle stress.
    • Open to constructive feedback and applying feedback. Active listening. Has a desire to receive feedback.
      Seeks additional resources for support and feedback
    • Shares a story of working with a mentor (not just in education but could be generally speaking).   
  • A Mandated Reporter Certificate of Completion when the applicant has completed six hours of general and school personnel training.  
  • A Course of Study Advising form for the Education Specialist program pathway the applicant is seeking to enter.
  • A Candidate Commitment Form completed by the applicant that aligns with the CTC requirement for all applicants to demonstrate personality and character traits that satisfy the standards of the teaching profession.
  • Unofficial transcripts

The CTC and university’s admission requirements are clearly documented as one process on our e-application website with links to the necessary documentation, offices, and paperwork required in the application. 

  • What is the process used to determine who gets admitted?
  • Of those who are admitted, how many enroll?

Candidates apply electronically to the program and to the university during the application windows of time for either fall or spring admission, and summer admission for one residency program and the Integrated Teacher Education Program (ITEP). Each application that is submitted is reviewed by the Credential Admissions Analyst to ensure that all required items have been submitted and to see whether or not the applicant met all of the requirements. If so, the Credential Admissions Analyst admits those eligible applicants. 

After all eligible applicants have been admitted, the applicants who submitted a complete application packet but who do not meet all of the admission requirements are considered next. Their application packets are reviewed on a case by case basis with the Program Coordinator and the applicant may be admitted if there are seats remaining in the cohort.  Next, applicants who submit incomplete application packets (one or more required items are missing) during the admission window are contacted by the Credential Admissions Analyst and provided with an opportunity to submit the missing items before the application window closes. If the applicant then submits all missing items before the deadline, their application packet is also reviewed on a case by case basis with the Program Coordinator, and these applicants may be admitted if there are seats remaining in the cohort. Once the seats are filled, those admitted applicants are then sent registration information. On average, 95% of admitted Education Specialist applicants enroll in their courses for the admitted semester start.

Description of monitoring and support process (see Appendix A)

  • Once candidates enroll, how are they monitored and supported through the program? 
  • What are the key benchmarks? 
  • What actions are taken when a candidate does not meet a benchmark? (Consider data submitted for CCTC Program Standards & Common Standards)

The Multiple Subject Credential Program ensures that only qualified teacher candidates are recommended for the credential. Prior to admission, each candidate is required to sign and submit a Course of Study form that shows the sequence of courses for their chosen pathway. The signed Course of Study form is kept in the candidate’s record and serves as the official Candidate Progress Monitoring document. Both the candidate and the Program Coordinator monitor the coursework completed across the program through the Course of Study form and the candidate’s transcripts.

Campus Evening - Fall and Spring Start

Fresno Teacher Residency Program

Madera Teacher Residency Program

Rural Teacher Residency Partnership 

Sanger Teacher Residency Program

After candidates are admitted to the credential program, they have access to various advisors and support. The Program Coordinator provides ongoing support and guidance to candidates and conducts the bulk of the advising because of the complexity and nuances of the program pathways. Candidates also receive support from the Kremen Center for Advising and Student Services and the Office of Clinical Practice. When candidates are enrolled in clinical practice coursework, they are assigned a University Coach who observes and gives feedback on a regular basis. These clinical coaches play an important role in supporting the growth and development of our candidates. The Coaches serve as critical supports and liaisons between the university and the candidates during the candidates' time in their program, in tandem with the Program Coordinator. Coaches use the debriefing session that follows each of the six formal lessons (see Coach Formal Lesson Observation Scripted Notes) that candidates develop and implement to provide constructive feedback to the candidate. Coaches also hold two formal triad meetings with the candidate and the Mentor Teacher at the mid-term and final weeks of the semester (Mid-term and Final Evaluation Rubric) to discuss progress and set future professional goals. The Coach also works with the candidate to complete an Individual Development Plan at the end of their program when the candidate completes the final clinical experience.  This document is sent with the candidate to provide to the employing school and district as the candidate enters into the Induction Program to eventually clear their preliminary credential. 

Upon completion of the program and all requirements, the candidate completes the application for the preliminary credential as shown on our website. Following receipt of the candidate’s application, the University Credential Analyst checks the candidate’s transcripts against the signed Course of Study form in the candidate’s record to determine and document on page 5 of the application that all courses have been completed with a ‘C” grade or better; there is a minimum 3.0 grade point average overall;  the US Constitution requirement is met; that the Basic Skills, Subject Matter Competency and Reading Instruction Competency Assessment has been met; there is a valid Certificate of Clearance and CPR certificate for infants, children, and adults, and that the candidate received passing scores on the Fresno Assessment of Student Teachers [FAST], the teacher performance assessment developed by Fresno State faculty. Only after all requirements are met is the candidate recommended to the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing for the Preliminary Education Specialist Credential. 

Monitoring and Support:
Multiple Subject candidates are evaluated formally and informally throughout the program.  Teacher candidates’ performance is assessed formally through the Fresno Assessment of Student Teachers (FAST), a state-approved Teacher Performance Assessment system designed for use at Fresno State. The FAST consists of two performance tasks: the Site Visitation Project and the Teaching Sample Project. The Site Visitation Project Project measures candidates’ pedagogical competence to effectively design and implement a standards-based math lesson that integrates English Language Arts and English Language Development Standards into the lesson. The three parts of the project include (1) Planning: planning documentation for a single lesson incorporating state-adopted content standards and English language development, (2) Implementation: an in-person observation and videotaping of the teaching of the lesson, (3) Reflection: a review of the entire video, selection of a 3- to 5-minute video segment, and a written evaluation of the lesson. The Site Visitation Project addresses Teaching Performance Expectations (TPE): TPE 1 - Engaging and Supporting All Students in Learning (1.1, 1.3, 1.5, 1.8); TPE 2 - Creating and Maintaining Effective Environments for Student Learning (2.2, 2.6); TPE 3 - Understanding and Organizing Subject Matter for Student Learning (3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.5); TPE 4 - Planning Instruction and Designing Learning Experiences for All Students (4.1, 4.2, 4.7) and TPE 6 - Developing as a Professional Educator (6.1). The Teaching Sample Project assesses teacher candidates’ ability to (a) identify the context of the classroom, (b) plan and teach a series of at least five cohesive lessons with a focus on content knowledge and literacy, (c) assess students’ learning related to the unit, (d) document their teaching and their students’ learning, and (e) reflect on the effectiveness of their teaching. Teacher candidates document how they are addressing the needs of all their students in the planning, teaching, and assessing of the content. The Teaching Sample Project addresses the following Teaching Performance Expectations:  TPE - Engaging and Supporting All Students in Learning 1.5, 1.6, 1.8; TPE 2 - Creating and Maintaining Effective Environments for Student Learning 2.1, 2.3, 2.6; TPE 3 - Understanding and Organizing Subject Matter for Student Learning 3.1, 3.2, 3.3; TPE 4 - Planning Instruction and Designing Learning Experiences for All Students 4.1, 4.3, 4.4, 4.7; TPE 5 -  Assessing Student Learning 5.1, 5.2, 5.5, 5.8; TPE 6 - Developing as a Professional Educator 6.1, 6.3, 6.5.

Candidates also receive feedback on their knowledge and performance in each course and clinical practice experience. Each course measures candidates’ performance on program-designed signature assignments which are evaluated by rubrics that list specific criteria for grading or scoring candidates’ performance. A periodic review of the rubric data provides information for continuous program improvement. In clinical practice, student teachers receive ongoing formative, actionable feedback and coaching on their lesson plans and instruction from their University Coach and experience Mentor Teacher. The Coach also provides written feedback from their observations of the candidate’s six formal lessons. At the mid-term and final points of the semester, triad meetings are conducted with the Mentor Teacher, University Coach, and Teacher Candidate to provide overall performance and growth feedback and for the candidate to set professional goals.

Candidates who are at-risk of failing a course or field experience are monitored, counseled, and offered targeted assistance by their instructors, Program Coordinator, and/or university coach throughout the semester. The Multiple Subject Credential Program uses a three-tiered support system for teacher candidates who are struggling to improve in areas related to the Teaching Performance Expectations. 

  • Tier 1 Teacher Candidate Support: At the first sign of a Teacher Candidate experiencing a challenge with program expectations, university coursework, and/or clinical placement, the person who becomes aware of the situation will explicitly address the challenge area with the Teacher Candidate via email communication. 
  • Tier 2 Teacher Candidate  Support: If the Teacher Candidate shows minimal improvement, the university instructor, and/or university coach will schedule a meeting with the Teacher Candidate to address the challenge area with a specific plan of action.  
  • Tier 3 Teacher Candidate Support: Individual Plan of Assistance: If the Teacher Candidate continues to show minimal improvement, the university coach will schedule a meeting for the Student Teacher, university coach, and Program Coordinator to co-construct an Individual Plan of Assistance for the Student Teacher. The university coach will monitor the Student Teacher’s progress on the Plan of Assistance. The Individual Plan of Assistance should never be filled out by a coach or Program Coordinator without the Teacher Candidate present and contributing. The Plan of Assistance will state the areas of concern, recommended actions, resources to support the Student Teacher, and date to review progress/outcome. The Teacher Candidate, university coach, and Program Coordinator must sign and date the Plan of Assistance. Any pertinent documentation of evidence must be submitted with the Plan of Assistance. Copies will be given to all concerned parties. The university coach, in consultation with the mentor teacher, will document the Student Teacher’s progress toward identified area(s) of concern. The university coach will conduct a weekly formal observation and evaluation. A conference to review progress will be conducted with the university coach and/or Program Coordinator, as stipulated in the Plan of Assistance.  

At the end of each grading period, a report is generated of candidates who have GPAs below 3.0 and/or who earned a ‘D’, ‘F’, ‘No Credit’, ‘W’, ‘WU’ or ‘Incomplete’ grades in a course. After reviewing the information, the Program Coordinator ensures that letters of concern that contain an offer for a 1-1 advising and support meeting are sent to the candidates on the list. The Program Coordinator then contacts candidates who are in danger of academic probation or program dismissal and offers a 1-1 appointment. Candidates who do not successfully pass one or more courses are offered the opportunity to repeat the course(s) for a better grade. If the repeated coursework and/or clinical practice experience is not successfully passed the second time with a ‘C’ or ‘Credit’ grade or better, the candidate could be counseled out of the program or dismissed from the program through a formal process. 

Program Admissions 

Candidate Tracking: Application to Completion

Multiple Subject

Cohort that entered Spring 2019

  Applicants Admitted Enrolled  Completed**
American Indian 0 0 0 0
Asian 0 0 0 0
Black 0 0 0 0
Hispanic 32 31 29 22
Pacific Islander 0 0 0 0
Two or more races 3 3 3 3
Unknown 0 0 0 0
White 19 19 18 15
Total 54 53 50 40

Cohort that entered Fall 2019

  Applicants Admitted Enrolled  Completed**
American Indian 1 1 1 1
Asian 4 4 3 3
Black 1 1 1 1
Hispanic 56 56 52 44
Pacific Islander 0 0 0 0
Two or more races 3 3 2 2
Unknown 0 0 0 0
White 23 22 21 18
Total 88 87 80 60

Cohort that entered Spring 2020

  Applicants Admitted Enrolled  Completed**
American Indian 0 0 0 0
Asian 7 7 7 4
Black 0 0 0 0
Hispanic 32 32 30 29
Pacific Islander 1 1 1 1
Two or more races 2 2 2 2
Unknown 3 3 3 1
White 15 15 15 13
Total 60 60 58 50

Cohort that entered Fall 2020

  Applicants Admitted Enrolled  Completed
American Indian 0 0 0 Program still in progress
Asian 9 9 9
Black 0 0 0
Hispanic 65 65 60
Pacific Islander 0 0 0
Two or more races 5 5 5
Unknown 3 3 3
White 38 38 36
Total 120 120 113

**Some candidates’ programs may still be in progress if they ended up taking an alternative pathway (i.e. internship)

Aspect E →