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Standard 2 Aspect A

Standard 2:  Program completers engage in professional practice in educational settings and show they have the skills and abilities to do so in a variety of additional settings and community/cultural contexts. Understand and engage local school and cultural communities and communicate and foster relationships with families/guardians/caretakers in a variety of communities. (Framework for 21st Century School Nurse Practice, Comprehensive School Health Systems, Community Partnerships)


School Nurse Services Program candidates polish their professional knowledge and skill in a required on-site practicum of 80 hours in Nursing 186 and Nursing 187 for a total of 160 hours. Candidates are required to log hours in journal format reflecting on their experiences.  Working with a qualified preceptor, school nurses experience supervised hands-on application of the information and skills learned in the seminar courses.  This allows preceptors to evaluate school nurses in knowledge and skills applicable to school nursing as summarized in the Preceptor Checklist of Skills and Competencies, Professional Dispositions and qualitative comments on evaluations. Candidates must obtain a 3.00 GPA or above in the practicum courses to pass. The primary role of the school nurse is to support learning and this is accomplished by implementing strategies that promote student and staff health and safety.  To be successful, school nurses must collaborate with students, staff, families, and community, as demonstrated in the Framework for 21st Century School Nurse Practice. Promoting the overall health of the school community is done by a well coordinated school health program that collaborates and is integrated in the local community. Methods used must be appropriate to the client’s developmental level, learning needs, ability to learn, culture, and language.  Example school nurse activities include controlling the spread of communicable disease by means of community based immunization programs, excluding students with suspected disease, designing screening programs, protecting medically fragile students from exposure, providing immunization clinics to families in the community, and providing community education on disease prevention.

  • DATA Sources to be introduced:
    Preceptor Checklist of Skills and Competencies Professional Management Skills (Form P106/P206
  • Professional Dispositions (Form P104/204)
  • Employer/Supervisor Survey of Program Effectiveness (Employer/Supervisor Survey)
  • CCTC Survey of Program Effectiveness (CCTC Survey Data 2018-2019 Results)
  • Nursing 186-N187 Practicum:  Key Assignment-(Experienced School Nurse Project/Leadership)
  • Nursing 186-N187 Practicum chart of suggested activities (Chart)
  • Program Prerequisites:  
    • Community Health Coursework with 3.00 GPA 
    • Special Education Coursework with 3.00 GPA
    • Counseling Coursework with 3.00 GPA

Data Source 1

Midterm and Final Semester Fieldwork Evaluation, Preceptor Checklist of Skills and Competencies - Professional Management Skills (Form P106/206)
The first measure is the Fall semester (Elementary) and Spring semester (Secondary) Fieldwork Evaluation, Preceptor Checklist of Skills and Competencies (P106/206)-Professional Management, used by preceptors to evaluate candidates in their fieldwork knowledge at two points. 

Perspective: Preceptor

Specific Items Used:
Items chosen to support understanding and engaging with local communities include:                   

  • Item 1: E31-S31 Candidate “Demonstrates the ability to use their professional knowledge and skills to promote the overall health of the school community.”  Example skills from the preceptor checklist:  E3-5, E7-8, and S3, S11-15.
  • Item 2: S39 Candidate “Expresses understanding for what is involved in maintaining a comprehensive school health services program.”  Example skills from the preceptor checklist: E6,11,14, and S4, 9, 11.
  • Item 3: E35-S34 “Candidates can communicate effectively in writing and can make clear oral presentations to a wide variety of audiences.”  Example skills from the preceptor checklist: E12, E19 and S8, S26.

Definition of Success:
Candidates are rated on a 5-point Likert scale from 5 “Excellent” to 1 “Poor”.  Example skills from the Preceptor Checkoff are noted.  The program goal is for all candidates to achieve an Excellent or Very Good rating. 

Professional Management Skills

Summary of Data

From 2017-2020:
E31-S31 scores on the Professional Management Indicators demonstrated 98% of candidates achieved an Excellent or Very Good rating, demonstrating candidates have the professional knowledge and skill to promote the overall health of the school community.  Three candidates rated a Good and Zero candidates rated a Fair or Poor.

S39 scores demonstrate 98% of candidates understand what is involved in maintaining a comprehensive school health program integrating school and community partnerships. Two candidates rated a Good and Zero candidates rated a Fair or Poor.

E35-S34 scores demonstrated 98% of candidates achieved an Excellent or Very Good rating in the ability to communicate and two received a Good rating.  Zero candidates rated Fair or Poor.

  • Mean scores in E31-S31 ranged from 4.83 to 4.86 with an average of 4.84 (Fall-Spring).
  • Mean scores in E35-S34 ranged from 4.87 to 4.91 with an average of 4.87 (Fall-Spring).
  • Mean scores in S39 ranged from 4.83 to 4.93 with a mean of 4.88 (Spring only).

Analysis and Interpretation
Candidates received high scores in the ability to use their professional knowledge and skill to promote the overall health of the school community, use a comprehensive school health systems model to implement health and wellness and communicate effectively in health areas with students, staff and families in the community.

Data Source 2

Professional Dispositions (P104/204)
The second measure is used by practicum preceptors to measure candidates' dispositions or behaviors using a 5-point Likert Scale.  Preceptors are asked to: “Circle the number on the scale that reflects the most accurate description of student application of dispositions.”

Perspective: Preceptor

Rationale for Using:
Professional Dispositions measures behavior needed for successful practice.  

Specific Items of Data Source Used: 

Items Include:

  • Item #5: “Candidate demonstrates a collaborative disposition. (The school nurse must collaborate/communicate meaningfully/effectively with other professionals, school site personnel, members of the community and families to effectively meet the needs of children/adolescents.)”

Definition of Success: 
This measure is a 5-point Likert scale with Excellent to Poor ratings.  Our goal is 100% of the candidates will measure an Excellent or Very Good on Dispositions. 

Professional Dispositions

Summary of Findings 

From 2017-2020:
Disposition data shows 96% of students achieved an Excellent or Very Good rating and four received a Good rating.  Zero candidates received a Fair or Poor rating.

  • Mean scores ranged from 4.79 to 4.91 with an average score of 4.84.

Analysis and Interpretation
Professional Dispositions data indicates candidates are perceived by preceptors as having the ability to collaborate and communicate with all stakeholders in the school and community settings including students, families, staff and community to promote health and wellness.

Data Source 3

Employer/Supervisor Survey of Program Effectiveness
The Employer/Supervisor Survey of Program Effectiveness is given to District Health Services Administrators who supervise program candidates in the workplace. 

Perspective: Employer/Supervisor of Program Completers

Rationale for Using:
These aspects look at how the program prepares candidates in assessment areas to improve and support a students’ ability to learn.  This is mailed out one year after a candidate completes the SNSC program.  Supervisors are asked to: “Rate the following program standards related to the programs’ effectiveness in preparing professional school nurses.” The survey was not sent out each year due to incomplete contact data/movement of supervisory administration. Candidates are rated on a 4-point Likert scale.  

Specific Items of Data Source Used:

Items reviewed include:

  • Item 1: Program Standard 1-Program Design
    The program prepares candidates to understand contemporary conditions of schools and society and how school nursing services need to change and evolve to address changing conditions. The design of the program is based on a clearly stated rationale that has a sound theoretical and scholarly foundation anchored to the knowledge base of school nursing.
  • Item 2: Program Standard 2-Collaboration in Implementing the Program
    Sponsors of the program establish collaborative arrangements with other institutions and entities that contribute substantially to the quality and effectiveness of the design and implementation of candidate preparation. These arrangements address significant aspects of professional preparation and include collaboration between school nurse preparation program providers and local education agencies.  

Program Effectiveness

Summary of Findings
Standard 1 data demonstrate 100% of employers perceive the design of the program is based on a clearly stated rationale that has a sound theoretical and scholarly foundation.  This framework is anchored to the knowledge base of school nursing allowing candidates to flex to meet the changing conditions of school and communities. Employers rated 100% of candidates Excellent or Good.

Standard 2 data demonstrate 100% of employers perceive the program adequately established collaborative arrangements with other institutions to improve the quality and effectiveness of program design to positively impact candidates towards their professional learning in 2016 and 2020.

Overall opinion of the Effectiveness of the SNSC Program ranged from 55% stating Excellent in 2016 to 92% in 2020

Analysis and Interpretation
Employers/Supervisors of candidates perceive that school nurses on completion of the SNSC program have the knowledge and skill to meet the ever-changing conditions of school and community.  Preceptor experiences have established collaborative arrangements with other institutions in the community to improve the quality and effectiveness of program content.  Data demonstrated a significant increase in the opinion that the SNSC Program has adequately prepared candidates to become professional school nurses who can meet the healthcare needs of students in school sites. We have changed the data collection process for 2020 but as yet are uncertain if it will improve the number of responses. 

Data Source 4

CCTC Survey of Program Effectiveness
The fourth data source is a survey from the California Commission on Teaching Credentialing provided to candidates 1-2 years after they have completed the program in 2018 and 2019.  

Perspective: Program Completers

Rationale for Using:
The purpose of this survey is to see if candidates felt the SNSC Program provided them with the knowledge and skill needed to be effective in their professional roles. Thirty eight  graduates responded to the CCTC Survey in 2019 and fifty one in 2020. Not every candidate answered each item.

(CCTC Credential Program Survey Data 2018-2019)

CCTC Survey of Program Effectiveness -Candidate Response
% of responses rating the SN program  (5) Strongly Agree or (4) Agree
Fall 
2019
n=38
Spring 
2020
n=51
11. “My coursework provided me with the knowledge and skills to be effective” . 92% 98%
21. “My fieldwork experience prepared me to be an effective educator”.  92% 95%
22. “My fieldwork was relevant to my coursework.”  92% 95%
27. “My instructors fostered a respectful and inclusive environment for all students.”  92% 96%
35. “The program provided the support I needed to learn.” 92% 98%

Although only 2 years of data is available from the CCTC, responses were overall positive about the School Nurse Services Credential program and its overall effectiveness in fieldwork courses to prepare candidates for a professional role as a school nurse.  Out of 89 total respondents in 2019-2020, four graduates stated they strongly disagreed in most categories.

Data Source 5

Nursing 186 and Nursing 187 Leadership Role or Experienced Nurse Project
School Nurse Services Credential Program candidates polish their professional knowledge and skills in a required on-site practicum of 80 hours in Nursing 186 and Nursing 187 for a total of 160 hours.  Working with a qualified preceptor, school nurses experience supervised hands-on application of the information and skills learned in the seminar courses.  School Nurses design Professional Goals and Objectives to further professional knowledge and, as one of the three goals and objectives, may choose a Leadership Role or Experienced Nurse Project.  

Perspective: Program Faculty

Leadership Role Project Description
Students may earn up to a maximum of ten (10) hours towards their field placement experience requirement for actively pursuing a Leadership Role related to school nursing. Examples include: presentations of a school nurse issue/or student health concern to a school board, community group, parent group, school staff; a leadership role in a professional or community organization; chairing a school site committee; leadership role in health education; developing a school site plan for disaster/emergency health management; a fundraising activity related to children's health, or participation in legislative advocacy relevant to children's health or school nursing. This leadership role may be one that comes up during the semester. An Experienced School Nurse Project is another option as demonstrated on the link.  Both activities are designed to assist students who are limited in time away from their worksite. (Leadership Role Project)

Definition of Success: Students must obtain a 3.00 GPA in the course to pass.

Mean Grades in School Nurse Practicum Courses

Mean GPA 2017 2018 2019 Combined
Nursing 186-School Nurse Practicum I 3.83 3.84 3.94 3.87
Nursing 187-School Nurse Practicum II 3.93 3.88 3.94 3.91

Analysis and Interpretation
Although the Leadership Role Project/Experienced Nurse projects are not given a specific grade for this activity, but hours earned, the project is an integral part of the overall course.  Data shows SNSC candidates achieved high ratings in fall and spring practicums from 2017-2020 with mean averages of 3.87 and 3.91 in Practicum courses.

Analysis of Standard 2a Findings
Data presented in Standard 2a demonstrates school nurse candidates have the knowledge and skill to understand and engage local school and cultural communities and communicate and foster relationships with families/guardians/caretakers in a variety of communities.  Using the Framework for 21st Century School Nurse Practice and Comprehensive School Health Systems Model candidates collaborate to establish community partnerships.

Aspect B →