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CCTC Accreditation 2022

Deaf Education Credential Program

Contact Person
Janice Smith-Warshaw

Sergio La Porta

Associate Dean
Song Lee

For technical issues
Contact Laura Rabago at

1. Program Summary

Contextual Information

California State University, Fresno is one of twenty-three universities in the California State University system. Fresno State Deaf Education was implemented in 1969 and has a strong history of service and preparation of deaf education professionals. The Dean of the College of Health and Human Services oversees seven departments. The Department of Communicative Sciences and Deaf Studies has Deaf Education Masters’ Degree and Deaf and Hard of Hearing Credential Program which prepare teacher candidates for service as teachers of students who are deaf, hard of hearing, and deaf blind, birth through 22. Our last national accreditation was with the Council on Education of the Deaf (CED) in fall 2016.

The Preliminary Deaf and Hard of Hearing Credential Program is a four-semester program of forty-four units: thirty units in teacher preparation coursework and fourteen units of supervised clinical experience. The Deaf and Hard of Hearing Credential Programs are based on a clearly stated rationale that requires candidates to complete foundation classes and content-specific methods coursework while concurrently practicing the application of these concepts in field placement settings. Candidates are expected to apply the theoretical and scholarly concepts, knowledge, and teaching skills in the planning and implementation of effective and appropriate lessons and units of study. The program provides extensive opportunities for candidates to learn to teach using the state adopted academic content standards with all students. Fieldwork placements are made in diverse settings including many high need, residential or public schools.

Coursework in the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Credential Program is offered through a cohort model with a hybrid format for coursework. In addition, teacher candidates have clinical experiences in the area where teacher candidates live. The program offers a student teaching option and the recently approved Deaf Education Internship Program option for employed teachers of record who meet the intern eligibility requirements.

Overview of Structure

Leadership in the Deaf Education program is through collaborative bi-weekly meetings with Communicative Sciences and Deaf Studies department chair and faculty, led by Deaf Education Program Coordinator, Dr. Janice Smith-Warshaw. Adjunct faculty is invited to attend the meeting(s) to receive pertinent information, to engage in discussion and to provide input on program decisions. Additional communication is exchanged by Zoom and through email. The program coordinator attends meetings with other faculty and coordinators in the Kremen School and through university committee work.

Courses of Study

For those students who do not have a B.A. degree in Deaf Education, they are required to complete three prerequisite online modules prior to admission: Overview Concepts of Deaf Education, Intermediate Concepts of Deaf Education and Advanced Concepts of Deaf Education.

In Year 1, Deaf Education graduate students complete 24 units of coursework: Supporting Families with DHH Children addresses theory and practice in interviewing and counseling students and families related to specific language/speech /hearing loss and techniques for altering and modifying behaviors that affect maximum growth and potential students and their families; Graduate Studies and Research Methods in Deaf Studies examines the studies and methods of research in deaf studies; Foundations of Teaching (A) addresses history of deaf education, special education law, classroom ecosystem, best practices for structuring and maintaining effective classroom management and individualized behavioral inte rvention strategies; Audiology for Teachers of DHH Students addresses the Habilitative and rehabilitative procedures to assist students with hearing loss; amplification, speech- reading, auditory training, speech and language training; psycho-socio-educational issues; Assessment of DHH Students addresses in-depth examination of psychological, achievement, language, communication, and diagnostic assessment tools and unique administration procedures used with DHH children and youth; Practicum in DHH Classroom addresses the supervised clinical participation and practice in teaching DHH children and youth in both settings (mainstreamed and residential schools). Teacher candidates also take Foundations of Teaching (B), a course which addresses translanguaging and transliterating techniques in American Sign Language and English, universal design for learning, writing effective unit and lesson plans for DHH student without or with disabilities and related multi-tiered systems of support topics.

In Year 2, Deaf Education credential candidates complete twelve units of coursework: Spoken Language Development of DHH Students designed to teach the methods to develop oral communication for deaf and hard- of-hearing students through demonstration and off-campus practicum; Language Development and Instruction for DHH Students addresses language acquisition and language development in first and second languages, utilizes different techniques of remediation in reading and writing, use of specialized equipment and development of teaching materials; Curriculum and Instruction for DHH Students examines how reading, writing, signing, listening and viewing are tools for learning content will guide an inquiry-based approach to curriculum planning, curriculum implementation, and assessment across curricula; Foundations of Teaching (C), a course which addresses DHH and Deaf Blind students with specific learning needs, mental health literacy, assistive technology, adult student self-advocacy, and individual transition planning for career and technology education or regional occupational program.

Supervised clinical practice experiences are required for sixteen weeks, one full semester. Teacher candidates are placed in the DHH classroom with co-teaching opportunities for the first four weeks. They assume additional responsibilities for weeks 5-8. The last 8-weeks may be in a different setting or teacher candidates may remain in the same school setting. All clinical practice placements reflect the socioeconomic and cultural diversity of DHH students and provide opportunities for teacher candidates to work with DHH students with disabilities in schools with a qualified Deaf Education program administrator who oversees the school site or a DHH program. Field supervision of teacher candidates is conducted by both Site Mentor Teachers and University Clinical Supervisor. Mentor Teachers must hold a Clear DHH Credential and have a minimum of three years of DHH teaching experience. The Mentor Teachers must have demonstrated exemplary teaching practices as determined by the employing district and the university teacher preparation program. The matching of Teacher Candidate and the Mentor Teacher is a collaborative process between the school and the program.

University Clinical Supervisors hold a valid DHH Credential and/or a Clear Administrative Credential. All have many years of teaching experience and hold Master’s degree or higher. Their role is to coach and support teacher candidates to develop their instructional, management, and professional skills. University Clinical Supervisors conduct on-site visits with each candidate: two triad meetings with master teacher and candidate [initial, mid-term and final triad meetings]; four formal on-site lesson observations with debriefing and coaching. In addition, university supervisors verify time logs, review candidates’ six formal lesson plans, post-lesson reflections and weekly reflections on learning; and additional contacts as needed.

Last year, the following changes have been made to the program:

  • Deaf Education credential program was revised in 2019-2020 to coordinate coursework, to align with new Deaf Education Program Standards. Proposed course changes were approved by the department and are scheduled to be reviewed by the University Curriculum Committee in 2020/2021.
  • A new Education Specialist - Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DHH) Internship Program was developed and approved by CTC, August 2020. The DHH intern program begins in Fall 2020.
  • Three new course proposals were developed for Deaf Education courses that incorporate multiple subject teacher education course content into CSDS graduate courses.

Assessment of Candidates

Deaf Education teacher candidates are assessed on their performance with formative and summative assessments. The assessments collectively measure the pedagogical competence of teacher candidates and interns and provide information for determining program quality and effectiveness.

The formative performance assessments of content knowledge and practical application are conducted in coursework and clinical practice experience. The performance data is used for continuous program improvement. In clinical practice, student teachers receive ongoing formative feedback and coaching on their lesson plans and instruction from their University Supervisor and Mentor Teacher. The University Supervisor also provides written feedback from their observations of the candidate’s four formal lessons. At the mid-term and final points of the semester, triad meetings are conducted with the Mentor Teacher, University Coach and Teacher Candidate to provide overall performance and growth feedback and for the candidate to set professional goals.

Candidates who are at-risk of failing a course or field experience are monitored, counseled and offered targeted assistance by their university supervisor. If the candidate does not successfully pass the course at the end of the semester, the candidate is offered the opportunity to re-take the course for a better grade. If the repeated coursework and/or clinical practice experience is not successfully passed the second time with an A, B, C, or Credit grade, the candidate could be dismissed from the program. At the end of each grading period, a report is generated of candidates who have GPAs below 3.0 and/or who earned a D, F, W, No Credit, or an Incomplete grade in a course. After reviewing the information, the program coordinator ensures that letters of concern are sent to the candidates on the list.

Service Delivery Models


Delivery Model


Main Campus


Traditional Student Teaching

Main Campus



2. Organizational Structure

3. Faculty Qualifications

Deaf and Hard of Hearing Credential Program Faculty Qualifications

Multiple Subject Distribution Table


Current Numbers


Full-time Tenure-Track



Part-time Tenure Track



Full-time Lecturer



Part-time Adjunct



Part-time University Clinical Supervisor



 Annotated Faculty List



Courses taught

Chantel Cox

Part-time Adjunct
University Clinical Supervisor

CSDS 260; CSDS 262; CSDS 258;

CSDS 268

Janice Smith-Warshaw

Full-time Tenure-Track
University Clinical Supervisor

CSDS 188T; CSDS 255; CSDS 263;

CSDS 264; CSDS 258: CSDS 268

Serena Johnson

Full-time Tenure-Track

CSDS 203

Stephen Roberts

Full-time Tenure-Track

CSDS 201; CSDS 206

Since the university does not require a vacancy to be posted for adjunct faculty, the department keeps a pool of interested applicants. The pool consists of applicants with relevant K-12 experience. The university’s Temporary Faculty Appointment document states,

“If a department does not have a posted vacancy announcement, please contact the department for information on applying for the temporary pool. The university provides an on-line directory to search for departments and phone number. The below application will be required for new hires:

  • Temporary Faculty Application Form (rev 06/2019):  Submit an application, Curriculum Vitae (resume), cover letter, three current letters of recommendation to the department. Contact department for other materials required.

See The California State University Bargaining Agreement Article 12 and the guidelines used by Fresno State for the appointment of new temporary faculty.

The following links to guidelines used by search committees at California State University, Fresno in the recruitment of new faculty: 

4. Course Sequence

Prior to admission, applicants review with the program coordinator to select the Course of Study form that matches their desired pathway. The applicant downloads, reviews, signs and submits the Course of Study with the program admission packet. The program coordinator reviews the documentation and approves or denies. The forms are added to the candidate’s record.

Courses of Study for the Preliminary DHH Credential Program:

5. Course Matrix

6. Fieldwork and Clinical Practice

Deaf and Hard of Hearing Credential Clinical Practice Hours

Course title

Brief Description

Number of Hours

CSDS 260

Initial supervised clinical practice field experience in an elementary general education classroom

30 hours

Student Teaching/Externship Clinical Practice Hours [taken when above courses are either completed or prior to final student teaching if CSETs are not passed]

Course title

Brief Description

Number of Hours

CSDS 258

Supervised field experience for student teaching, taken when teacher candidates have completed all clinical practice coursework in their program and need additional clinical practice support for the student teaching.

450 hours

CSDS 268

Supervised field experience for DHH interns, taken when interns have completed all clinical practice coursework in their program and need additional clinical practice support for the internship.

450 hours

Plan to Transition has been submitted to CTC. The new changes are expected to take effect in Fall 2022.

The DHH Clinical Practice handbook is located at

DHH Teacher Candidates enrolled in clinical practice receive information about their Clinical Practice Handbook at the initial meeting with the Program Coordinator and a follow-up meeting with the University Supervisor. First, candidates receive information about the handbook at the mandatory DHH Clinical Experience Orientation, which is held on the first day of instruction. Second, handbook information [attachment] is emailed to candidates by their University Supervisor following the orientation. Candidates are provided a paper copy of the handbook at no cost, if requested.

7. Credential Recommendation

Deaf and Hard of Hearing Credential Recommendation Process 

The Preliminary DHH Credential program ensures that only qualified candidates are recommended for the credential. Prior to admission each teacher candidate is required to sign and submit a DHH Credential Educational Plan form that shows the sequence of courses for their chosen pathway. The signed DHH Credential Educational Plan form is kept in the candidate’s record and serves as the official Candidate Progress Monitoring document. Upon completion of the program and all requirements, the candidate completes the application for the preliminary credential.

Following receipt of the candidate’s application, the University Credential Analyst checks the candidate’s transcripts against the signed DHH Credential Educational Plan in the candidate’s record to determine and document on page 5 of the application that all courses have been completed with a ‘C” grade or better; there is a minimum 3.0 Grade Point Average overall; the US Constitution requirement is met; passing scores on the CBEST, CSET and RICA examinations; a valid Certificate of Clearance and CPR certificate for infants, children and adults, and passing scores on the teacher performance assessment. The form and all requirements are verified by the Deaf Education Program Coordinator. Candidates meeting all requirements are recommended by Deaf Education Program Coordinator to the Kremen School of Education and Human Development Credential Analyst for a DHH credential.

After all requirements are met, the candidate is recommended to CCTC for the preliminary DHH credential.

Plan to Transition has been submitted to CTC. The new changes are expected to take effect in Fall 2022.

Plan to Transition has been submitted to CTC. The new changes are expected to take effect in Fall 2022.